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Compositeurs:
Adams, H. Leslie
Akpabot, Samuel Ekpe
Alberga, Eleanor
Bonds, Margaret Allison
Brouwer, Leo
Burleigh, Henry Thacker
Coleridge-Taylor, Samuel
Cunningham, Arthur
Dawson, William Levi
Dédé, Edmund
Dett, R. Nathaniel
Elie, Justin
Ellington, Edward K. "Duke"
Euba, Akin
Garcia, José Mauricio Nunes
Hailstork, Adolphus C.
Holland, Justin
Jeanty, Occide
Johnson, James P
Joplin, Scott
Kay, Ulysses Simpson
Khumalo, J.S. Mzilikazi
Lambert, Sr., Charles Lucièn
Lambert, Jr. Lucièn-Léon G.
Lamothe, Ludovic
Leon, Tania
Moerane, Michael Mosoeu
Perkinson, Coleridge-Taylor
Pradel, Alain Pierre
Price, Florence Beatrice
Racine, Julio
Roldan, Amadeo
Saint-Georges, Le Chevalier de
Sancho, Ignatius
Smith, Hale
Smith, Irene Britton
Sowande, Fela
Still, William Grant
Walker, George Theophilus
White, José Silvestre
Williams, Julius P.
 

Livre d'or

William J. Zick, Webmestre
wzick@ameritech.net

 

Daniel Marciano,
Traducteur

 

 

 

 

 


Delos 3449 (2013)

 

 

 

 


Albany Records Troy1430

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

« George Walker : Chamber Music and Songs »
Naxos 8.559659 (2010)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
« Lilacs: The Music of George Walker »
Arizona State University Symphony
Orchestra
Summit 274 (2000)

 

 

« George Walker: Orchestral Works »
Cleveland Chamber Symphony
Direction : Edwin London
Albany Records 270 (1998)

Accueil -> Compositeurs -> Walker, George Theophilus

English

 
George Walker  (né 1922)

Compositeur et Pianiste Afro-Américain

Premier Afro-Américain à recevoir le Prix Pulitzer de musique


 


Table des Matières

  1 Articles
  2 Parents
  3 Naissance
  4 Ses débuts comme pianiste
  5 Oberlin College
  6 Curtis Institute
  7 Auditions de jeunesse
  8 Etudes en France
  9 Eastman School
 10 Bourse Fulbright
 11 Professeur
 12 Honneurs
 13 Pulitzer Prize
 14 Cours
enseignés
 15 Publications
 16 Partitions
 17 Œuvres
 18 Bibliography


« George Walker : Great American
Orchestral Music, Vol. 2 »
Albany Records Troy 1178

 

 

 

Échantillons audio :
1
Sony DSO-1111 (2002) ; « Detroit Symphony
   Orchestra: Black Composers Series » ; Natalie
   Hinderas, piano ; Detroit Symphony Orchestra ;
   Direction : Paul Freeman
   Concerto pour piano
2
Cedille 90000 061 (2001) ; « African Heritage
   Symphonic Series, Vol. II » ; Chicago
   Sinfonietta ; Direction : Paul Freeman
   Lyric for Strings


1 Articles
Des articles sur George Walker sont disponibles à la Library of Congress et plus d’une douzaine de publications incluant Fanfare, Musical Quarterly, New Music Connoisseur, The New York Times and The Washington Post.

2 Parents
Dominique-René de Lerma, Professeur de Musique à Lawrence University à Appleton, Wisconsin, a travaillé sur la thématique de l’héritage africain dans le domaine de la musique classique ces quarante dernières années. Il a gracieusement communiqué ses recherches sur George Walker sur son site Web: 

Le père de George Walker est né à Kingston, Jamaïque. Il était médecin et a immigré aux Etats-Unis. Il a obtenu son diplôme à Temple University Medical School à Philadelphie. La mère de Walker s’appelait Rosa King, native de Washington, D.C.

3 Naissance
George Theophilus Walker est né à Washington, D.C. le 27 juin 1922. Dès l’âge de 5 ans, il commence à étudier le piano avec sa mère d’après ce que l’on sait. Le site web de Walker nous apprend que son premier professeur est Miss Mary L. Henry. Mrs. Lillian Mitchell Allen, docteur en musicologie, devint son deuxième professeur.

4 Ses débuts comme pianiste
Son site Web mentionne qu’à l’âge de 14 ans, Walker fait sa première apparition en public au piano à Howard University, et le Professeur De Lerma ajoute qu’il a terminé ses études secondaires à Dunbar High School. Il a étudié la musique au Junior Department de Musique de Howard University.

5 Oberlin College
Le Professeur De Lerma parle des études de Walker à Oberlin College: Une bourse a permis à Walker de s’inscrire à Oberlin college à l’âge de 15 ans en 1937. David Moyer fut son professeur de piano et Arthur Poister lui enseigna l’orgue. Walker avait 18 ans quand il obtint son diplôme de BM (Bachelor in music) reçu major de sa classe en 1941 avec distinction. 

6 Curtis Institute
Le Professeur De Lerma mentionne aussi que Walker a poursuivi ses études au Curtis Institute :
Au Curtis Institute of Music, il étudia le piano avec Rudolf Serkin et Mieczyslaw Horszowski et la musique de chambre avec William Primrose et Gregor Piatigorsky.
Sur son site Web, nous apprenons que Walker a étudié aussi la composition à Curtis avec Rosario Scalero. Son Web site mentionne aussi  qu’il termina ses études à Curtis Institute avec des diplômes en piano et composition en 1945, devenant le premier diplômé noir de cette célèbre école de musique.


7 Auditions de jeunesse
L’année de l’obtention de son diplôme à Curtis, Walker a remporté le prix des jeunes talents à Philadelphie et le professeur De Lerma écrit à ce sujet :

C’est en 1945 qu’il a remporté le Prix Youth Auditions ( Prix des Jeunes Talents) à Philadelphie. Il donna son premier récital de piano et fit ses débuts de concertiste à Town Hall in 1945 comme pianiste avec le troisième concerto de Rachmaninoff avec l’orchestre de Philadelphie dirigé par Eugene Ormandy.

Le jeune pianiste a fait ensuite une tournée à travers l’es Etats-Unis et l’Europe.

8 Etudes en France
Les chercheurs mentionnent que les musiciens avec qui Walker a étudié en France et qui comprennent l’illustre Nadia Boulanger :

Durant son séjour en France, il étudia avec Robert Casadesus, et fut l’un des rares étudiants particuliers de Nadia Boulanger à l’American Academy, qu’il fréquenta en tant que pianiste pour la première fois au cours de l’été de 1947

9 Eastman School
Dominique-René de Lerma mentionne que Walker a obtenu un D.M.A. de la Eastman School of Music :
 
Il a donc obtenu ce titre de Doctor of Musical Arts Degree ainsi que the Artist Diploma in 1956 de la Eastman School of Music, institution qui l’a reconnu en 1961 comme l’un de ses anciens élèves les plus distingués.

10 Bourse Fulbright
George Walker a rappelé les circonstances de son séjour d’étude à Paris en 1957 et 1958 : J’ai étudié la composition avec Nadia Boulanger à Paris avec une bourse Fulbright en 1957. J’ai ensuite obtenue une bourse pour étudier à L’American Academy à Fontainebleau en 1958.

11 Professeur
Les postes universitaires occupés par George Walter sont cités par le Professeur De Lerma.

Parmi ses premiers postes d’enseignant, citons Dillard University, the Dalcroze School of Music, the New School for Social Research, Smith College, and the University of Colorado-Boulder. Ultérieurement, il enseigna au Peabody Conservatory of Music, à l’University of Delaware et en 1969 fit partie de la Faculté de Rutgers University-Newark où il fut Chef du Département et nommé Distinguished Professor in 1976. Walker reçut une deuxième bourse Guggenheim dans les années 1970. Il prit sa retraite en 1992.

12 Honneurs
Les biographes mentionnent un certain nombre de bourses, subventions et distinctions décernées à Walker :

Après avoir obtenu son diplôme de Eastman en 1957 (D.M.A.), il a bénéficié d’une bourse Fulbright, d’une aide financière de la John Hay Whitney Fund l’année suivante, une bourse de la Bok Foundation l’aida lors de sa tournée européenne de concerts en 1963. Il reçut le prix Rhea A. Soslund Chamber Music Award en 1967. Il a obtenu un prix Guggenheim en 1969 et a résidé à la MacDowell Colony en été de 1966 à 1969. Il a obtenu plusieurs prix en 1971 et en 1974 et des bourses de la National Endowment for the Arts en 1972 et 1974, avec un prix de la Hans Kindler Foundation in 1975. En 1996 il est devenu le premier Noir à obtenir le Prix Pulitzer. Il a également obtenu des subventions de la American Music League and de la Bennington Composers Conference.

13 Le Prix Pulitzer
George Theophilus Walker a remporté le Prix Pulitzer de la musique en 1996. Le Professeur De Lerma mentionne cette distinction dans un article de synthèse de l’Africana Encyclopedia :

En 1996, vers la fin de sa longue carrière, il devint le premier Afro-Américain à avori remporté le Prix Pulitzer Prize de musique, pour Lilacs, une pièce pour voix et orchestre.

14 Cours enseignés
George Theophilus Walker a remporté le Prix Pulitzer de la musique en 1996. Le Professeur De Lerma mentionne cette distinction dans un article de synthèse de l’Africana Encyclopedia :

En 1996, vers la fin de sa longue carrière, il devint le premier Afro-Américain à avori remporté le Prix Pulitzer Prize de musique, pour Lilacs, une pièce pour voix et orchestre.

15 Publications
Autre question qui amena une réponse éclairée sur l’importance de l’édition pour que les œuvres de Walker soient reconnues. Bruce Duffie lui avait demandé : - « A l’approche de votre 65e anniversaire, y a-t-il quelque chose qui vous a particulièrement surpris à propos de votre musique ou de la musique en général ? »

Je ne puis parler de surprise. Tout au long de ma vie j’ai senti que je pourrais être en harmonie avec le monde. Il est clair que pendant longtemps je ne l’ai pas été. J’ai été en avance sur mon temps pendant longtemps en tant que pianiste quand les organisateurs de concerts ne voulaient pas accueillir un pianiste noir. Pendant longtemps, j’ai écrit de la musique qui n’était jouée par personne à l’exception de quelques interprètes mais je me suis efforcé de faire publier mes œuvres, sans nul succès au départ et puis j’ai réussi un tant soit peu et tout à coup j’ai rencontré Paul Kapp, un homme très remarquable qui est mort il y a quelques années. Il a publié l’ensemble de ma musique parce qu’il croyait en moi. Je lui dois une énorme gratitude parce que sans ces publications, ma musique aurait été très peu jouée. Il croyait fermement que c’était important et que cela devrait être largement souligné. L’édition de ma musique m’a fourni un socle pour tenter de mieux faire connaître ma musique.

16 Partitions
A l’exception de deux anthologies, Walker dit que toute sa musique a été publiée plus récemment par MMB Music à St. Louis, Missouri. Les titres de la musique de concert de cette entreprise ont été choisis par Lauren Keiser Music Publishing Co. 

17 Œuvres
Prof. Dominique-René de Lerma

[Note de Webmestre : Les noms d'anciens éditeurs ont été mis entre crochets.]

O’Neal, Barry, ed. American art songs; a collection of 20th century songs by American composers from Charles Ives to Elliott Carter.

LP: Silver Crest MOR-111977 (Morgan State University Choir; Nathan Carter, conductor) 1977.

A babe is born, for SATB (1976).  [Dobbs Ferry: General Music Publishing Co., 1979 (#1104ch). 7p.]  Text: "Medieval text" in English and Latin.  Commission: Nathan Carter. Duration: 3:15. Première: 1976/XII/12; Baltimore, Lyric Theater; Morgan State University Choir; Nathan Carter, conductor.

AT: Morgan State University Choir; Nathan Carter, conductor. (1976/XII/12.

LP: Morgan State University Choir; Nathan Carter, conductor. Silver Crest MOR-111977 (1977).

A red, red rose, for low voice & piano (1971). [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1975.] Text: Robert Burns. Duration: 3:48.

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music (S814008; #702). 6p.

----- Melville: Edward B. Marks, 1977 (Anthology of art songs by Black American composers, ed. by Willis Patterson, p88-93).

CD: Odikhiren Amaize, bass-baritone; David Korevaar, piano. Musicians’ Showcase MS 1011 (2000; The Negro speaks of rivers; art songs by African-American composers).

CD: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

LP: Laura English-Robinson, soprano, with piano. University of Michigan SM-0015 (1980; Art songs by Black American composers).

LP: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI SD-488 (1983).

Address for orchestra  (1959; rev. 1995).  [New York: MCA Music, 1970 (#16714-044).  108p.]  1. Poco adagio – allegro; 2. Molto adagio; 3. Passacaglia.  Instrumentation: 3332, p Eh bcl cbsn, 4221, timp, perc, harp, strings.  Dedication: "To my parents." Duration: 19:00. Premiere (outer movements): 1968; New York, Lincoln Center; Symphony of the New World; Benjamin Steinberg, conductor; (complete work): 1971; Belgium; Mons Festival.  Library: Library of Congress (LC 72-259901).

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music (X077010).

----- 1. Poco adagio – allegro.

AT: Symphony of the New World; Benjamin Steinberg, conductor (1968).

----- 3. Passacaglia.

AT: Symphony of the New World; Benjamin Steinberg, conductor (1968).

LP: Oakland Youth Orchestra; Robert Hughes, conductor.  Desto DC-1701 (1971, The Black composer in America).

An Eastman overture, for orchestra (1983). Saint Louis: MMB Music (X077011).  Première: 1983/I/15; Washington; Kennedy Center. Duration: 8:04.

CD: Eastman Philharmonia; David Efron, conductor. Albany TROY 136 (1994, George Walker, a portrait).

CD: Eastman Philharmonia; David Efron, conductor. Mercury 289-411 031-1 (1983).

LP: Eastman Philharmonia; David Efron, conductor. Mercury 411031-1.

Antiphonys, for chamber orchestra (1968).  [New York: General Music Publishing Co.  47p. & 16 parts.]  Instrumentation: 1111, 1110, perc, celesta, 4221.  Première: Bennington College Chamber Orchestra; E. Guigi, conductor.  Duration: 6:15.

AC: Royal Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor.  RCA Red Seal 60234-4-RC.

AT: Bennington College Chamber Orchestra; E. Guigi, coductor.

CD: Royal Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor. Albany TROY 136 (1994, George Walker, a portrait.

CD: Royal Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor. Mastersound DFCD 1-015 (1991, Orchestral showpieces from around the world).

CD: Royal Philharmonic Orchestra;  Paul Freeman, conductor.  RCA Red Seal; 60234-2-RC.

LP: Royal Philharmonic Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor. Serenus SRS-12081.

----- for string orchestra (1968).  [New York: General Music Publishing Co.  30p.]  Duration: 5:00.  Première: 1968; University of Massachusetts; New England Chamber Festival Orchestra; Paul Olefsky, conductor.

Bauble, for piano (1981). [Dobbs Ferry: General Music Publishing Co., 1981. 6p.]

Caprice, piano. see also: Prelude, piano.

CD: George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

Cantata (1982). 1. Psalm 23; 2. Psalm 24 [four verses]. Duration: 12:40.

CD: Joyce Matthis, soprano; Walter Turnbull, tenor; Boys Choir of Harlem; Orchestra of St. Luke’s; Warren G. Wilson, conductor. Albany TROY 136 (1994, George Walker, a portrait).

CD: Joyce Matthis, soprano; Walter Turnbull, tenor; Boys Choir of Harlem; Orchestra of St. Luke’s; Warren G. Wilson, conductor. Timeless CDTC-150.

Concerto, piano (1975).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1976. 122p.]  q = 72; q = 63; q = 120. Instrumentation: 2222, p bcl cbs, 4321, timp, perc, harp, strings. Commission: Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and the National Endowment for the Arts. Première: 1975; Natanile Hinderas, piano; Minnesota Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor. Duration: 23:16.

AC: Natalie Hinderas, piano; Detroit Symphony Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor(1976).

AC: Natalie Hinderas, piano; New York Philharmonic; Paul Freeman, conductor (1977).

AT: Natalie Hinderas, piano; Detroit Symphony Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor (1976/II).

AT: Natalie Hinderas, piano; Minnesota Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor (1975).

AT: Natalie Hinderas, piano; New York Philharmonic; Paul Freeman, conductor (1977/VIII/31).

CD: Natalie Hinderas, piano; Detroit Symphony Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor. Royce Music 1111 (2002; Black composers series).

CD: Natalie Hinderas, piano; Detroit Symphony Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor (1974). Sony Music DSO 1111(2002; Black composers series).

LP: Natalie Hinderas, piano; Detroit Symphony Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor. Columbia M-34556 (1975, Black composers series).  Liner notes: Dominique-René de Lerma.

LP: Natalie Hinderas, piano; Detroit Symphony Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor. CBS Special Products P9-19424 (Black composers series).

Concerto, trombone (1957). [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co. 82p.]  1. Allegro; 2. Grave; 3. Allegro.  Duration: 16:00.  Instrumentation: 2222 p cbsn, 4221, timp, perc, celesta, harp, strings.  Première: 1957; Porter Poindexter, trombone; Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra; Howard Hanson, conductor.

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music (S231001.

AT: Porter Poindexter, trombone; Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra; Howard Hanson, conductor (1957).

CD: Christian Lindberg, trombone; Malmö Symphony Orchestra; James DePreist, conductor. Bis SCD 011 (1993, American trombone concertos).

CD: Christian Lindberg, trombone; Malmö Symphony Orchestra; James DePreist, conductor. Bis CD 628 (American trombone concertos).

LP: Denis Wick, trombone; London Symphony Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor.  CBS Special Products P9-19424 (Black composers series).

LP: Denis Wick, trombone; London Symphony Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor.  Columbia M-32783 (Black composers series, 1974).

----- for trombone & piano.  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1976.]

Concerto, violin.  Duration: 17:00.

Concerto, violoncello  (1981).  Première: 1982/I/14; New York, Avery Fisher Hall; Lorne Monroe, cello; New York Philharmonic; Zubin Mehta, conductor. Duration: 23:00.

AT: Lorne Monroe, cello; New York Philharmonic; Zubin Mehta, conductor (1982).

Dialogus, for violoncello & orchestra (1976). Commission: Cleveland Orchestra. Première: 1976/IV/22; Cleveland, Severance Hall; Steven Gaber, cello; Cleveland Orchestra; Lorin Maazel, conductor. Duration: 13:00.

AT: Steven Gaber, cello; Cleveland Orchestra; Lorin Maazel, conductor (1976).

Elevation, for organ (1963).

5 Fancys, for clarinet & piano, 4 hands (1974).  [Dobbs Ferry: General Music Publishing Co.]; Saint Louis: MMB Music (X131004). Commission: David Ensemble. Première: 1975/I/4; New York, Alice Tully Hall; David Ensemble; Warren Wilson, conductor. Duration: 8:30.

CD: Eric Thomas, clarinet; Vivian Taylor, John McDonald, piano. Albany TROY 136 (1994, George Walker, a portrait).

LP: Carmele Galante, clarinet; Ted Baker, Frank Carliss, piano. Orion 83461 (1983).

Folksongs, for orchestra (1990). 1. Going to lay down my sword and shield; 2. And they crucified my Lord; 3. My Lord, what a morning; 4. O Peter, go ring dem bells.

CD: Cleveland Chamber Symphony; Edwin London, conductor. Albany TROY 270 (1997).

Give thanks unto the Lord, for SSA & organ (1963).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1975 (#CH863). 14p.] Text: Psalm 105. Duration: 4:50.

Gloria in memoriam, for SSA & organ (1963).  [Northampton: Smith College, New Valley Music Press, 1963.] 10p. Text: Liturgical. Duration: 4:00. Première: March 1963/III; Smith College Chamber Singers; Charles Fassett, conductor.

Hey nonny no, for medium voice & piano (1954).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1975 (#832). 4p.]  Duration: 1:05.

CD: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

LP: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI SD-488 (1983).

I have no life but this, for medium voice & piano..

CD: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

LP: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI SD-488 (1983).

I went to heaven, for medium voice & piano (1953).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1971 (#639). 3p.] Text: Emily Dickinson. Duration: 2:00. :

AT: Louise Parker, contralto; Dwana Holroyd, piano (1974).

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music (S814018). Text: Emily Dickinson. Duration: 2:00. Première: 1958; Paris; Sylvia McDonald, soprano; Boyd McDonald, piano.

AC: George Shirley, tenor; Christine Dahl, piano (1995/III/31; Appleton WI, Lawrence University Chapel., Ben Holt Memorial Concert Series).

AC: George Shirley, tenor; Wayne Sanders, piano (1976/VI/23; Princeton, Westminster Choir School).

AT: (George Shirley, tenor; Wayne Sanders, piano) 1976. Library: Lerma.

AT: Antonia Lavanne, soprano; George Walker, piano (1968).

AT: Louise Parker, contralto; Dwana Holroyd, piano (1974, Amherst MA).

CD: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

LP: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI SD-488 (1983).

Idyl, for orchestra (1957). Withdrawn.

In praise of folly, for orchestra (1980).  [Dobbs Ferry: General Music Publishing Co.]  Première: 1980; New York, Avery Fisher Hall; New York Philharmonic: Zubin Mehta, conductor. Duration: 8:00.

AT: New York Philharmonic; Zubin Mehta, conductor (1980).

Lament, for low voice & piano (1971). [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1975 (#703) 7p.]  Duration: 4:00.

------Melville: Edward B. Marks, 1977 (Anthology of art songs by Black American composers, ed. by Willis Patterson, p54-58)

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music (S814015). Text: Countee Cullen.

AT: Ben Holt, baritone; Cliff Jackson, piano (1984; Baltimore, Peabody Conservatory of Music, Peabody-Morgan Symposium).

LP: Willis Patterson, bass, with unidentified pianist. University of Michigan SM-0015 (1980; Art songs by Black American composers).

Lilacs, for voice & orchestra (1995). St. Louis: MMB Music. Première: 1996; Symphony Hall; Faye Robinson, soprano;[2] Boston Symphony Orchestra; Seiji Ozawa, conductor. Award: Pulitzer Prize, 1996.

CD: Faye Robinson, soprano; Arizona State University Symphony Orchestra; Timothy Russell, conductor. Summit Records DCD 274 (2000).

Lyric, for string orchestra (1941).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1975. (#841). 8p.]  Dedication: A memorial to the composer’s grandmother. Orginal title: Lament. Duration: 5:46. Première: 1947; Washington,National Gallery of Art; National Gallery Orchestra; Richard Bales, conductor.  Originally entitled Lament, title change requested by the publisher.  Library: Center for Black Music Research (Lerma Collection, ozalid reproduction of holograph), Library of Congress (LC 75-765263

AT: Westfällische Sinfonieorchester; Paul Freeman, conductor.

AC: Wisconsin Chamber Orchestra; David Lewis Crosby, conductor.

AT: New York Philharmonic; Paul Freeman, conductor (1977/VIII/
31).

CD: Chicago Sinfonietta; Paul Freeman, conductor (1995). Cedille CDR 90000 061 (2001; African heritage series, v2).  Liner notes: Dominique-René de Lerma.

CD: Cleveland Chamber Symphony; Edwin London, conductor. Albany TROY 270 (1997).

CD: Joyce Fissler, Gregory Walker, violins; Robert Glazer, viola; Avron Coleman, violoncello. Orion 83461 (1983).

LP: London Symphony Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor. Columbia M-33433 (1975) 1975.

LP: London Symphony Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor. CBS Special Products P9-19424.

Lyrics, for SATB & piano (1958). [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1971.] 1. The bereaved maid [text: anonymous]; 2. Take, o take those lips away [text: Shakespeare, Measure for measure, Act IV]; 3. O western wind.  Première: 1969; Boulder; University of Colorado Chamber Singers.

AC: Morgan State University Choir; Nathan Carter, conductor (Carbondale IL; 1976).

---- 1. The bereaved maid. 8p. (#CH636).  Text: anonymous. Duration: 4:30. Also set for voice & piano on the suggestion of Nadia Boulanger.

LP: Betty Ridgeway, mezzo-soprano; Patricia Springer, piano; Morgan State University Choir; Nathan Carter, conductor Silver Crest MOR-111997 (1977).

---- 2. Take, o take those lips away.  Saint Louis: MMB Music (S944005). 7p. (#CH635).

LP: Betty Ridgeway, mezzo-soprano; Patricia Springer, piano; Morgan State University Choir; Nathan Carter, conductor Silver Crest MOR-111997 (1977).

----- 3. O western wind.  8p. (#CH634) Text: anonymous.

Mass, for soprano, contralto, tenor, baritone, SATB & orchestra (1977).  [Dobbs Ferry: General Music Publishing Co.] 1. Kyrie; 2. Gloria; 3. Credo; 4. Sanctus; 5. Agnus Dei.  Duration: 28:26. Première: 1979/IV/13; Lyric Theatre, Baltimore; Claudia Lindsey, soprano; Norma Hirsch, contralto; William A. Brown, tenor; Abraham Lind-Oquindo, baritone; Morgan State University Choir; Baltimore Symphony Orchestra; Sergiu Comissiona, conductor. Duration: 23:00.

AT: Claudia Lindsey, soprano; Norma Hersch, contralto; William Brown, tenor; Abraham Lind-Oquendo, baritone; Morgan State University Choir; Sergiu Commisiona, conductor (1979/IV/13).

----- piano-vocal score. Dobbs Ferry: General Music Publishing Co. 63p.

Music for brass, sacred and profane  (1975).  [Dobbs Ferry: General Music Publishing Co.]  1. Invokation; 2. Dance I; 3. Chorale, on Liebster Jesu wir sind hier; 4. Dance II.  Duration: 11:10. Commission: Hans Kindler Foundation. Première: 5/I/1976; Textile Museum, Washington; American Brass Quintet of New York.

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music (S205001).

LP: American Brass Quintet [Chris Gekker, trumpet; David Wakefield, horn; Michael Powell, tenor trombone; John D. Rojak, bass trombone]. Serenus SRS-12077 (1977).

CD: American Brass Quintet [Chris Gekker, trumpet; David Wakefield, horn; Michael Powell, tenor trombone; John D. Rojak, bass trombone]. Albany TROY 154 (1995)..

Music for diverse instruments, for brass nonet (1981). Instrumentation: 3321. Première: 1981/VI/15; Cross Keys, Baltimore; Annapolis Brass Quintet: [Ann Osterle, Sharon Tiebert, horns; Romona Galey, trumpet; August Denhard, tuba].

Music for three, for piano, violin & cello (1970).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1972. 16p. & parts.] Première: 1970; National Gallery of Art, Washington; University of Maryland Trio. Duration: 5:00. Library: Library of Congress (LC 73-211744).

O Lord God of hosts, for SATB & organ (1960). Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1975. 12p. (#CH861).  Text: Psalm 84.  Duration: 4:49.  Dedication: "To my mother."

O praise the Lord, for SATB with organ reduction (1953). [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1975. 14p. (#CH864).] Text: Psalm 117. Duration: 2:41. Dedication: "For my uncle J." Première: 1978/IX; Riverside Church, New York; Riverside Church Choir; Frederic Swan, conductor.

---- Saint Louis: MMB Music (S940007).

AC: Morgan State University Choir; Nathan Carter, conductor (1976/XII/12).

AC: Morgan State University Choir; Nathan Carter, conductor (Carbondale IL; 1976).

LP: Morgan State University Choir; Nathan Carter, conductor. Silver Crest MOR-111977 (1977).

Orpheus, for narrator, chamber orchestra (1994). Instrumentation: 1111, 2210, timpani, percusssion, piano, harp, strings.

CD: William Demsey, narrator; Eileen Moore, (Eurydice); Cleveland Chamber Symphony; Edwin London, conductor. Albany TROY 270 (1997).

Pageant and proclamation, for orchestra.

AC: New Jersey Symphony Orchestra; Zdenek Macal, conductor.

Perimeters, for clarinet & piano (1966).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1972. 14p. & part. (#726).]  Contents: 3 movements, tempos metronomically indicated. Duration: 9:10. Commission: Leroy Johnston. Première: 1966/III/31; Juilliard School.

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music (X131007). 14p. & part. (#726).

AT: Leroy Johnson, clarinet; Frances Walker, piano.

LP: Meyer Kupferman, clarinet; Kazuko Hayami, piano. Serenus SRS-12077 (1977).

2 Pieces, organ. St. Louis: MMB Music.

3 Pieces, organ. Saint Louis: MMB Music, 1991. 1. Elevation; 2. Chorale, Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier; 3. Invokation. Duration: 11:00.

CD: Mickey Thomas Terry, organ.  Albany TROY 136 (1994, George Walker, a portrait).

Poem, for soprano & chamber ensemble (1986).  Saint Louis: MMB Music (X081003). Text: T. S. Eliot, The hollow men.  Duration: 14:00.

CD: Capitol Chamber Artists. Centaur CRC-2071.

CD: Ian Walker, narrator; Capitol Chamber Artists; Angelo Frascarelli, conductor. Albany TROY 154 (1995, Chamber music).

Poème, for violin & orchestra (1991). 1. q = 88; 2. q = 72; 3. q = 120.

CD: Gregory Walker, violin; Cleveland Chamber Symphony; Edwin London, conductor. Albany TROY 270 (1997).

Praise ye the Lord, for SATB & organ (1963).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1975. 9p. (#CH865).] Text: Psalm 148. Duration: 1:45. Dedication: "For my father."

Prelude, piano  (1941).  Caprice (1945).  Duration: 3:20 (Prelude); 7:00 (Prelude and Caprice).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1975.]

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music (S410019).

CD: George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

LP: George Walker, piano. Orion 83461 (1983).

Prelude and caprice, for piano.  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1975. 7p. (#867)]  Duration: 7:00.  Dedication (prelude): "To my sister."  The prelude was originally the first of the now withdrawn Three pieces for piano, composed in 1941 and premiered by Jeanne Behrend; the Caprice was composed in 1945.

Quartet, strings, no. 1  (1945).  Saint Louis: MMB Music (S054003, score; X504003, parts).  Duration: 14:00.  Première: 1946; Juilliard School of Music, New York.  The slow movement, from 1941, is known as Lyric.

AC: Unidentified ensemble.

LP: Gregory Walker, Joyce Fissler, violins; Robert Glazer, viola; Avron Coleman, cello. Orion 83461.

Quartet, strings, no. 2  (1967, rev. 1968).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co.  44p. & parts.]  Duration: 20:00.

CD: El Paso Festival Quartet [ Moses Posossian, Serena Canin, violins; Misha Amoy, viola; Ian Müller-Szeraws, cello]. Summit Records DCD 274 (2000).

Response, for medium voice & piano (1953). Duration: 2:25. [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1971. 3p. (#632).]  Text: Paul Laurence Dunbar. Première: 1968; Bennington College; Antonia Lavanne, soprano; George Walker, piano.

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music (S814012).

AT: Joan Forde, mezzo-soprano; Judy May, piano.

CD: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

LP: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI SD-488 (1983).

Serenata, for chamber orchestra (1983). 1. q = 63; 2. q = 40; 3. q = 52. Duration: 13:00.

CD: Cleveland Chamber Symphony; Edwin London, conductor. Albany TROY 270 (1997).

Sinfonia  (1984).  Première: 1984/VIII; Berkshire Music Center; Berkshire Music Festival Orchestra.  Duration: 10:00.

Sing unto the Lord, for SATB with piano reduction (1963). [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1975.]

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music (S940008). 12p. (#CH862). Text: Psalm 96. Duration: 2:00.

AC: Morgan State University Choir; Nathan Carter, conductor (1976/XII/12).

LP: Morgan State University Choir; Nathan Carter, conductor. Silver Crest MOR-111977 (1977).

So we'll go no more a-roving, for medium voice & piano (1953). [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1971.]

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music (S814013; #631).  Text: Lord Byron. Duration: 1:47.

AT: Joan Forde, mezzo-soprano; Judy May, piano.

AT: Louise Parker, contralto; Dwana Holroyd, piano (1974; Amherst).

CD: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

LP: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI SD-488 (1983).

Sonata, 2 pianos  (1963). 1. Adagio ma non troppo; 2. Presto; 3. Adagio; 3. Allegretto. A version of Sonata, piano, no. 2.  Duration: 10:10.

AC: Wilfred Delphin, Edwin Romain, pianos (Fisk University Chapel; 1982/III/12).

Sonata, piano, no. 1  (1953).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1972 (#727) 27.p.]  1. Allegro energico; 2. Moderato; 3. Allegro con brio. Duration: 15:00.

AT: Joel A. Martin, piano (1983/V/15).

AT: Natalie Hinderas, piano (1971/VI/13, Indiana University).

CD: George Walker, piano. Albany TROY 117 (1994, George Walker in recital).

CD: George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

CD: Natalie Hinderas, piano. CRI CD 629 (1992; Piano music by African American composers). composers). Liner notes: Dominique-René de Lerma, 19p.

LP: George Walker, piano. Serenus SRS-12077 (1977).

LP: Natalie Hinderas, piano. Desto DC-7102/3 ( ca. 1971).

----- rev. 1991.

CD: Maxine Franklin, piano (2003/VIII/03; Churchill College; University of Cambridge).

Sonata, piano, no. 2  (1957).  New York: Galaxy Music, 1966.

----- St. Louis, MMB Music (S4 10005; #GMC 2470). 19p. 1. Allegro non troppo; 2. Presto; 3. Adagio; 4. Allegretto.  Duration: 10:00.

CD: George Walker, piano.  Albany TROY 154 (1995, Chamber music).

LP: George Walker, piano. CRI SD-270. (c1971).

Sonata, piano, no. 3 (1975). [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1976. (#904). 13p.] 1. Fantoms; 2. Bell; 3. Chorale and fughetta.  Duration: 9:30.

LP: Leon Bates, piano. Orion ORS-76237 (1976).

Sonata, piano, no. 4 (1984). Saint Louis: MMB Music (S411002).

AC: Frederick Moyer, piano. GM Recordings 2016T.

CD: Frederick Moyer, piano. GM Recordings GMR 2016 CD.

Sonata,viola & piano.  Duration: 13:00.

Sonata, violin & piano, no. 1  (1959).  [New York: Associated Music Publishers, 1970. 20p. & part. (#AMP-6918-18)]  In 1 movement. Duration: 10:00.

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music (S511003).

AT: Darwyn Apple, violin; Seth Corwyn, piano.

CD: Gregory Walker, violin; George Walker, piano. Albany TROY 154 (Chamber music).

CD: Gregory Walker, violin; George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

Sonata, violin & piano, no. 2  (1979).  [Dobbs Ferry: General Music Publishing Co., 1979. 23p. & part.]  Duration: 13:16.

CD: Gregory Walker, violin; George Walker, piano. Summit Records DCD 274 (2000).

LP: Gino Raffaeli, violin; Lois Roya, piano. Orion 83461 (1983).

Sonata, violoncello & piano  (1957).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1972. 30p. & part. (#731).] 1. Allegro appassionato; 2. Sostenuto; 3. Allegro. Duration: 15:00.

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music (S531002).

CD: Italo Babini, cello; George Walker, piano. Albany TROY 154 (1995, Chamber music).

LP: Italo Babini, cello; George Walker, piano. Serenus SRS-12081.

Songs, for medium voice & piano (1982).  [New York: Peer-Southern.]  1. Nocturne [text: Donald J. Hayes]; 2. Wild nights [text: Emily Dickinson]; 3. What if I say I shall not wait  [text: Emily Dickinson]; 4. I have no life but this  [text: Emily Dickinson]; 5. Bequest  [text: Emily Dickinson]. Première: 1982/III/12; Nashville; Fisk University Chapel; Devonna Barnes Rowe, soprano; McCoy Ramsom, piano.

AC: Devonna Barnes Rowe, soprano; McCoy Ramsom, piano (1982/III/12; Fisk University Chapel)

----- 3. What if I say I shall not wait.

CD: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

LP: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI SD-488 (1983).

---- 4. I have no life but this.

CD: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

LP: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI SD-488 (1983).

---- 5. Bequest.

CD: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

LP: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI SD-488 (1983).

Spatials, for piano (1961).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1972. 7p. (#652) Contains 6 variations.]  Duration: 3:30.

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music (S410017).

AC: Unidentified pianist.

CD: George Walker, piano. CRI CD-670 (1994, The composer-performer; a compact disc retrospective)..

LP: Felipe Hall, piano. Da Camera Magna SM-93244 (1975). Duration: 4:14.

LP: George Walker, piano. CRI SD-270 (ca. 1971).

LP: George Walker, piano. Orion ORS 83461 (1983).

Spektra, for piano (1971).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1972.]

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music (S4100018). 12p. (#662) Duration: 4:25.

AC: Unidentified pianist.

CD: George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

LP: George Walker, piano). CRI SD-270 (c1971).

Spires, for organ (1998).

AC: Mickey Thomas Terry, organ.

Spirituals, for orchestra (1974). 46p. 1. Down by the riverside; 2. He never said a mumbalin' word; 3. My Lord, what a morning; 4. O Peter, go ring dem bells.  Duration: 8:30.  Instrumentation: 2222 p, 2221, timp, perc, harp, piano, strings.  Dedication: "For Gregory and Ian."  Première: 1974/IX/07; Houston; Houston Symphony Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor.

AC: Houston Symphony Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor (1974/IX/07).

Spirituals, for medium voice & piano (1975).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1975.] 1. Ev'ry time I feel de spirit. 5p. (#821); 2. I got a letter from Jesus. 3p. (#832); 3. Mary wore three links of chain. 5p. (#830).

Stars, for SATB with piano reduction (1953).  [New York: Associated Music Publishers, 1968. 6p. (#A-596-5).]  Text: Susan D. Kenney. Duration: 4:00.  Dedication: "For my sister."  Première: 1969/V; Boulder; University of Colorado; University Singers; Charles A. Byers, conductor.

Sweet, let me go, for medium voice & piano (1954).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1971. 3p. (#633).] Text: anonymous. Duration: 1:45.

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music (S814009).

CD: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

LP: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI SD-488 (1983).

Symphony (1961).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co. 109p.]  1. Adagio; 2. Allegro assai; 3. Adagio; 4. Risoluto. Duration: 18:00. Instrumentation: 2222 p Eh bcl cbsn, 4431, timp, perc, harp, strings. Première: ca. 1969; Boulder; University of Colorado Symphony Orchestra; H. Chavez, conductor.

Tangents, for chamber orchestra (1999). St. Louis: MBM Music.

CD: ProMusica Chamber Orchestra of Columbus, Ohio; Timothy Russell, conductor. Summit Records DCD 274 (2000).

The bereaved maid, for medium voice & piano (1953).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music, 1971. 5p. (S81400;#629).]  Text: Anonymous.  Duration: 4:05.  Première: 1958; Paris; Sylvia McDonald, soprano; Boyd McDonald, piano.  Adapted from Lyrics, no. 1, on the suggestion of Nadia Boulanger.

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music.

AT: Antonia Lavanne, soprano; George Walker, piano (1968).

AT: Joan Forde, soprano; Judy May, piano.

CD: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

LP: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI SD-488 (1983)

Variations, orchestra (1971).  [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1972. 77p.]  Contains 8 variations.  Instrumentation: 2222 cbn, 4231, timp, perc, harp, piano, strings.  Duration: 14:00.

CD: New Philharmonia Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor. Albany TROY 136 (1994, George Walker, a portrait).

CD: New Philharmonia Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor. Mastersound DFCD1-015 (Orchestral showpieces from around the world).

LP: New Philharmonia Orchestra; Paul Freeman, conductor. Serenus SRS-12077 (1977).

Variations on a Kentucky folksong, for piano (1953). Duration: 5:05.

CD: George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

LP: George Walker, piano. Orion 83461..

Wind set, for woodwind quintet (1999). St. Louis: MMB Music.

CD:. Peggy Schecter, flute; Richard Foley, oboe; William Shadel, clarinet; Jerome Ashby, horn; Leonard Hindell, bassoon. Summit Records DCD 274 (2000).

With rue my heart is laden, for medium voice & piano (1953). [Hastings-on-Hudson: General Music Publishing Co., 1972.  (S819010).]  Text: Alfred Edward Housman.  Duration: 2:45.

----- Saint Louis: MMB Music

CD: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI CD 719 (1997, The music of George Walker).

LP: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, soprano; George Walker, piano. CRI SD-488 (1983).

18 Bibliography
Prof. Dominique-René de Lerma

“?” in Overtones  [Curtis Institute of Music] (1995/II).

“Classical roots in Louisville” in Symphonium, v2n2 (1990/spring-summer) p4.

“George Walker wins Pulitzer Prize” in Peabody news, (1996/V-VI) p3.

“George Walker” in Musical America, v72 (1952/1/I) p18.

“George Walker” in Musical America, v80 (1960/IV) p32.

“George Walker” in Musical courier, v146 (1952/XI/01) p13.

“Hailstork, Walker, and Cordero in a Black composers concert” in New York Times (1977/IV/03).

Abdul-Rahim, Raoul. “George Walker’s new piece” in Blacks in classical music; A personal history.  New York: Dodd, Mead, 1977, p40-42 [Dialogus].

Ahrens, Thomas Joseph.  The piano sonatas of George Walker. Bloomington IN: n.p., 1973. 37p.

Amerigrove 1986

ASOL 1992

Baker, David Nathaniel, Jr. The Black composer speaks, by David Baker, Lida Belt, and Herman Hudson. Metuchen: 1978.

Bakers 1992

Banfield, William C.  Landscapes in color; Conversations with Black American composers.  Landham MD.: Scarecrow Press, 2003. xvi, 380p. ISBN 0-8108-3706-4.

Baruch, David J. “George Walker” in Musical America, v80 (1960/IV) p32.

Berry, Lemuel, Jr. Biographical dictionary of Black musicians and music educators, vol. 1.  Guthrie OK: Educational Book Publishers, 1978.

Black music research journal  1980, p81, 91; 1981-1982, p96, 126, 145; 1983, p51; v10n1, p100, 101

Black perspective in music, v1n1, p97, 98, 99, 101, 102; v3n1, p123; v3n3, p332, 347; v4n1, p108, 124; v4n3, p340, 350; v5n1, p120, 121; v5n2, p237, 238, 240, 242; v6n1, p63, 110; v7n2, p265, 266; v9n1, p109; v9n2, p125, 233; v10n1, p96; v11n2, p220, 232, 233; v13n1, p127; v14n1, p32, 57, 59, 72, 79, 81, 82, 83; v17, p199

Black sacred music, v4n2, p74.

Brooks, Tilford.  America’s Black musical heritage.  Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1984.

Bull, Storm. Index to biographies of contemporary composers, vol. 3. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1987. xxiv, 854p. ISBN 0-8108-1930-9.

Bull, Storm. Index to biographies of contemporary composers, vol. 3. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1987. xxiv, 854p. ISBN 0-8108-1930-9.

Burton, Larry. “Fanfare event creates new symphony fans” in The Times [Shreveport?] (ca.1992).

Carter, Madison H. An annotated catalogue of composers of African ancestry.  New York: Vantage Press, 1986.

CBMR digest v2n2, p8

Center for Black Music Research. Digest, v2n2, p8

Clague, Mark. “George Walker wins Pulitzer Prize: a triumph eighty years in the making” in CBMR digest, v9n2 (1996/fall) p3-4.

Clague, Mark. “Walker, George Theophilus, Jr.” in International dictionary of Black composers, ed. by Samuel A. Floyd, Jr. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999, v2,1169-1178/

Dawson, Jack. “Work by Rutgers composer to premiere at brass festival here” in Sun [Baltimore] (1981/VI/14) pD3. [Music for diverse instruments].

Delphin, Wilfred J. A comparative analysis of two sonatas by George Walker: Sonata no. 1, and sonata no. 2.  Graduate paper (D.M.A., performance) University of Southern Mississippi, 1976.

Ennett, Dorothy Maxine.  An analysis and comparison of selected piano sonatas by Black composers: George Walker, Howard Swanson, and Roque Cordero.  Graduate paper (Ph.D., performance) New York University, 1973. 133p.  DDM Code: 71keEnnD; DA no.: 34/06:3450; RILM no.: 76/15523dd; UM no.: 73-30,062; LC 70-30062.

Ewen, David.  American composers; A biographical dictionary.  New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1982.

Finn, Terri Lowen. “A serious composer talks about the path to success” in New York Times (1981/II/8) sect/11, p4-5.

Gastner, Adrian, ed. International who’s who in music and musicians’ directory. 8th ed. Cambridge UK: International Who’s Who in Music, 1977.

Gray 1988 & author index

Greene, Frank.  Composers on record; an index to biographical informatrion on 14,000 composers whose music has been recorded. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1985. 636p. OSBN 0-8108-1816-7.

Hampton, Edwin Kevin.  George Walker. Composer, performer, and educator; A critical examination of his life and works for solo piano. Graduate paper (D.M.A., performance) University of Maryland. Research director:Thomas Schumacher. DDM Code: 71keHamE*; DA no.: RILM no.: UM no.:

Handy, D. Antoinette. Black music; Opinions and reviews.  Ettrick VA: BM&M, 1974., p8, 56, 73

Hitchcock 1988, p124

Horne 1996

Horne, Aaron. String music by Black American composers. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1991 (Music reference collection, no. 33). xx, 327p. Foreword by Dominique-René de Lerma. ISBN 0-313-27938-1.

Horne, Aaron. Woodwind music by Black American composers. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Index to the Schomburg clipping file.  Alexandria: Chadwyck-Healey, 1986.

Jablonski, Edward. The encyclopedia of American music.  Garden City: Doubleday & Co., 1981

Jackson, Raymond.  The piano music of twentieth-cventury Black Americans as illustrated mainly in the works of three composers. Graduate paper (D.M.A.) Juilliard School. 75p. [Piano sonata, no. 2]

Kehler, Geirge.  The piano in concert.  Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1982.

Kimball, Robert.. “Black composers fete; four premieres and an adieu to Allen” in New York post  (1977/IX/02) p34.

Lerma 1981

Lerma, Dominique-René de. “A concordance of music entries in five encyclopedias: Bakers, Ewen, Groves, MGG, and Rich” in Black music research journal 1981/1982, p127-150. Reprinted in  The Black perspective in music, v11n2 (1983/fall) p190-209.

Lerma, Dominique-René de. “Biographical notes on the composers” in Symposium of symphonic music by Black composers, Baltimore. Minneapolis: AAMOA Press, 1973, p11-14.

Lerma, Dominique-René de. “Bit of music history: George Theophilus Walker” in Intercultural harp news: a news and information source for harpists, v2n1 (1996/spring) p13.

Lerma, Dominique-René de. “George Theophilus Walker” in Intercultural harp news, v2n1 (1996/spring) p13.

Lerma, Dominique-René de. “Program notes for the DSO concert” in Classical Black heritage.  Detroit: Classical Black Heritage, 1976.

Lerma, Dominique-René de. “Walker’s Mass premiered” in Baltimore Afro-American, v87n74 (1979/IV/28) p25, 27.

Lerma, Dominique-René de.  Black music in our culture; Curricular ideas on the subjects, materials, and problems.  Kent: Kent State University Press, 1970., p180

Lerma, Dominique-René de.  Minnesota Black Composers Seminar, May 18-24, 1975, presented by the Afro-American MusicOpportunities Association. n.p.: n.p., 1975. 20p.

Lerma, Dominique-René de.  Reflections on Afro-American music. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1972.

Lerma, Dominique-René de.  Symposium of symphonic music by Black composers, Houston, September 3-7, 1974.  n.p.: n.p., 1974. 24p.

Lerma, Dominique-René de.  The choral works of George Walker. New York: American Choral Foundation, 1981. 30p. (American choral review, v23n1, 1981/I).

Lowens, Irving. “Washington D.C.: Eastman Philharmonia” in High fidelity/Musical America, v33n5 (1973/V) p30 [An Eastman overture]

Lyle 1984

Mapp, Edward.  Directory of Blacks in the performing arts. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1978, 1990

Martin, T. “George T. Walker; classical composer with a touch of soul” in Ebony (1985/III) p124.

Matney, William C.  Who’s who among Black Americans.  3rd ed. Northbrook: Who’s Who Among Black Americans, 1981.

Nagase 1993, p105, 380

NANM 1991

Newson, Roosevelt.  A style analysis of the three piano sonatas of George Theophilus Walker.  Document (D.M.A., piano performance) Peabody Conservatory of Music, 1977. ix, 202 p. illus., mus. exs., works lst., append., discog., bibliog. DDM Code: 71keNewR; DA no.: 39/06:3214; RILM no.: 76/1616dd; UM no.: 78-23,373.

Oliver 1990 (which?)

Plaskin, G. “Composer who backed inro the business” in New York times biographical zsservice (1982/I) p141-142.

Rehrig 1991 [Sally in our alley paraphrase, for band]

Roach, Hildred.  Black American music, past and present.  Boston: Crescendo, 1973.

Schomburg 1986

Schonberg, Harold C. "Hailstork, Walker, and Cordero in a Black composers' concert" in New York times (1977/IX/3).

Sims, D. Maxine. "An analysis and comparison of piano sonatas by George Walker and Howard Swanson" in The Black perspective in music, v4n1 (1976/spring) p70-81.

Slonimsky, Nicolas. “Walker, George” in Baker’s biographical dictionary of musicians.  6th ed. New York: Schirmer Books, 1978, p1845-1846.

Southern 1971a

Southern, Eileen. “Walker, George Theophilus” in Biographical dictionary of Afro-American and African musicians.  Westport: Greenwood Press, 1982, p387. (The Greenwood encyclopedia of Black music).

Southern, Eileen. “Walker, George” in The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians, ed. by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan, 1980, v20, p173.

Southern, Eileen. “Walker, George” in The new Grove dictionary of American music, ed. by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan, 1986, v4p469.

Southern, Eileen.  The music of Black Americans; a history. 2nd ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1983,.

Symphonium  v2n2; v3n1; v3n3; v4n2; v5n1

Thomas 1989, p39, 99, 101.

Thomas, André Jerome.  A study of the selected Masses of twentieth-century Black composers: Margaret Bonds, Robert Ray, George Walker, and David Baker. Graduate paper (D.M.A.) University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, 1983. 214p.

Vann, Kimberly R.  Black Music in Ebony; an annotated guide to the articles on music in Ebony magazine, 1945-1985. Chicago: Center for Black Music Research, Columbia College. 1990 (CBMR Monographs, no. 2)., p95.

Walker, George. “It is clear that we must end this” in Grecourt review (1962/XI) p31.

Walker, George. “Piano sound in reproduction” in Music journal, v22 (1964/V) p40.

Walker, George. “Rise from your curled position” in Grecourt review, v6 (1962/XI) p30.

White, Evelyn Davidson.  Choral music by Afro-American composers; A selected, annotated bibliography.  2nd ed. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1996. viii, 126p. ISBN 0-8108-3037-X. First edition issued by Scarecrow in 1981:

Who's who classical 1983, 1985

Who's Who colored 1950




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