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Tania Leon: Singin' Sepia
Bridge 9231 (2008)






Continuum, The Western Wind
Tania Leon, Conductor
CRI 662 (1994)




Musics of Latin America by Robin Moore, General Editor, and Walter Aaron Clark, Contributing Editor; W.W. Norton & Co. (2012). Includes the career of Tania León.

Home -> Composers -> León, Tania Justina

Tania Justina León  (b. 1943)

Afro-Cuban Composer, Conductor & Professor

Contemporary Music for Concert, Dance & Opera


Table of Contents

  1 Birth
  2 Music Studies
  3 New York
  4 Dance Theater
  5 Orchestras
  6 The Wiz
  7 Music Posts
  8 Professor
  9 Scourge of Hyacinths
 10 Recent Credits
 11 Honors
 12 Recordings
 13 Works
 14 Bibliography

Tania León, Photo: Michael Provost

Audio Sample: CRI CD 662 (1994); Tania León: Indigena; Richard Kelly, trumpet; Continuum; Tania León, Conductor  Indigena

1 Birth
Tania Justina
León is a composer and conductor and professor of contemporary concert music.  She was born in Havana, Cuba on May 14, 1943.  K. Robert Schwarz has written  the liner notes for her CD Indigena, CRI 662 (1994):

Born in Havana in 1943, she is of mixed French, Spanish, Chinese, African, and Cuban heritage.  "My ancestors came from different parts of the world; they came from different cultures," she says. "I take pride in the heritage each of them passed on to me, and I represent all of them within myself.  I prefer to be an inclusive human being."

2 Music Studies
Dominique-René de Lerma is a Professor of Music at Lawrence University and has specialized in African heritage in classical music for four decades.  He has kindly made his research file on Tania León available to this website:

Of African, Chinese, Cuban, French, and Spanish heritage, she began studying piano at age four and attended Carlos Alfredo Peyrellade Conservatory (B.A., 1963) and the National Conservatory (M.A., 1964) in her native Havana, with additional degree work in business administration (1965).

3 New York
In 1967 Tania León settled in New York, where she worked in accounting. She earned two degrees at New York University, Prof. De Lerma relates:

She moved to New York in 1967, continuing her studies at New York University (B.S., 1971; M.S., 1973).  Originally pianist for Arthur Mitchell’s dance classes, she joined him as co-founder in 1969 of the Dance Theater of Harlem and was the first music director (conductor and composer) for that ensemble from 1970 to 1978, including the tour to South Africa in 1992.

4 Dance Theater
Prof. De Lerma outlines
León's professional association with Arthur Mitchell's Dance Theater of Harlem:

Originally pianist for Arthur Mitchell’s dance classes, she joined him as co-founder in 1969 of the Dance Theater of Harlem and was the first music director (conductor and composer) for that ensemble from 1970 to 1978, including
the tour to South Africa in 1992.

In his liner notes, K. Robert Schwarz continues to discuss León's work with the ensemble:

León's first ballet for Mitchell,  Tones (1973) was followed by further collaborations, such as Dougla  (with Geoffrey Holder, 1974) and Spiritual Suite  (with Marian Anderson, 1976).

5 Orchestras
Prof. De Lerma chronicles a number of Tania
León's performances as an orchestral conductor, beginning in 1971:

Tours as conductor of orchestras in the U.S. and Europe included her appearance in 1971 at the Festival of Two Worlds in Spoleto and the Nervi Festival in Genoa (1972), Orquesta Sinfónica de Madrid, the Marseille Symphony Orchestra and Chorus, Orquesta de la Communidad y Coro de Madrid, Alvin Ailey Dance Theater (2003/XII, its 45th anniversary) and the Orchestra de Santa Cecilia (Rome). Other conducting experiences have been with the Gewandhausorkester (Leipzig), the National Symphony of South Africa, the Beethovenhalle Orchestra, the Louisville Orchestra, and the New World Symphony.

6 The Wiz
León conducted The Wiz on Broadway in 1992, Prof. De Lerma writes:

In that year she conducted the Broadway production of The wiz and her second consecutive year as conductor of WNET’s telecast series, Dance in America.  In that same year she was appointed conductor of the Brooklyn Philharmonic Orchestra’s Community Concert Series, performing also as that orchestra’s pianist and assistant conductor to Lukas Foss.

7 Music Posts
León has served as advisor, assistant or director to a wide variety of music organizations, Prof. De Lerma says:

She was musical assistant to Dennis Russell Davies for the production at the Metropolitan Opera of The voyage by Philip Glass (1995-1996).  She has served as Artistic Director of the Composers Forum and is on the American Music Center’s board of directors.  During his final years as music director of the New York Philharmonic, Kurt Masur appointed her as his musical advisor (1993-1997), serving also as the Revson Composer Fellow.  She was Latin American Musical Advisor to the American Composers Orchestra until 2001, and founder of its festivals, Sonidos de las Américas (1994).  Additionally she has been advisor to New York’s Meet the Composer Residencies Program.

8 Professor
Tania J.
León's positions as a Professor or Visiting Professor of Music have taken her to distinguished schools in the U.S. and abroad, as we learn from Prof. De Lerma:

In 1985, she joined the faculty at Brooklyn College (where she was named Tow Distinguished Professor in 2000), she has held residences at the Hamburg Musikschule,  Harvard, Yale, Yaddo, Bellagio, and the Fromm Residency at Rome’s American Academy. For the 1997-1998 school year, she was named the Karel Husa Visiting Professor of Composition at the Ithaca College School of Music.

9 Scourge of Hyacinths
The composer's Web site www.TaniaLeon.com  tells of her 2005 opera,  Scourge of Hyacinths:

In March 2005, Ms. León joined forces with Nobel Prize-winner Wole Soyinka with whom she collaborated on her award-winning opera  Scourge of Hyacinths.  Based on Soyinka's  Samarkand and Other Markets I Have Known,  the new work celebrated the opening of the Shaw Center for the Performing Arts in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

10 Recent Credits
In addition to Scourge of Hyacinths, Tania
León's website reports, her recent credits as Conductor and Music Director include:

Alvin Ailey American Dance Theatre, Madrid Symphony Orchestra, Madrid, 2002

Symphony Orchestra of Marseille, France, 2003

Orquesta de la Comunidad de Madrid, Spain, 2004

MOSAIC Chamber ensemble, NY, 2004

New York University Symphony Orchestra, 2004

Symphony Orchestra of Marseille, France, 2005

"Shangri La". Opera by Susie Ibarra, The Kitchen, NYC, 2005

Fargo-Moorhead Symphony, ND, 2005

11 Honors
León's Web site announces her selection on February 27, 2006 as a Distinguished Professor of the City University of New York.  The award is in recognition of both her past achievements and her future potential as a Professor at CUNY.  Prof. De Lerma list several other honors:

Among her honors are awards from the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the National Endowment for the Arts, Chamber Music America, the Lila Wallace/Reader’s Digest Fund, NYSCA, ASCAP, and Meet the Composer, and was the only musician among 12 of the 2003 National Women’s History Month honorees. The New York Governor’s Lifetime Achievement Award was granted her in 1998, in which year she held the Fromm Residency at the American Academy, in Rome. She was awarded an honorary doctorate from Colgate University in 1999, and from Oberlin College in 2002.

12 Recordings
Tania Justina
León's works appear on a large number of recordings.  Five of her compositions are included on the  Indigena  CD:  Indigena (8:18),  Parajota Delate  (3:09),  Ritual  (5:28),  A la Par  (12:49), and Batey  (20:44).  León is Conductor for the CD, CRI 662 (1994).  The orchestras are Continuum and The Western Wind.  The disc is an American Academy of Arts and Letters Composers Award Recording.  A solo piano version of  Ritual  (8:37) has been recorded by Martha Marchena on Troy 242 (1997).  Tania Leon: Singin' Sepia is a retrospective recording featuring six compositions written between 1992 and 2002: Bailarín (1998), Singin' Sepia (1996), Axon (2002), Arenas d'un Tiempo (1992), Satinè (2000), and Horizons (1999).  The catalog number of the CD is Bridge 9231 (2008).

13 Works
      Prof. Dominique-René de Lerma

A la par, for percussion & piano (1986).  New York: Peer Music.  Commission: Whitney Museum.  Duration: 13:30.

CD: Chris Lamb, percussion; Virginia Perry Lamb, piano (1992/X/21).  CRI CD 662 (1994, Indígena). Liner notes: K. Robert Schwarz, 23p. (Spanish translation: Jorge Covarrubias).

CD: Kathleen Murray, piano; Dane Richeson, percussion.  CRI CD 823 (1999, A la par).  Liner notes: Dominique-René de Lerma and Robert Schwarz.  18p.

CD: Thamyris Ensemble; Tania Léon, conductor.  ACA 20064 (c2003; A city called heaven).

Ajiaco, for guitar & piano.

CD: Schanzer/Speach Duo.  Avant 02.

Arenas d’un tiempo, for clarinet, cello & piano (1992).  Commission: New York State Music Teachers Association.  Duration: 12:00

Ascend, for brass ensemble & percussion (1983).  New York: Peer Music.  Instrumentation: 4431; 3 percussion.  Commission: Queens Symphony.

At the fountain of Mpindelela.  Première: 2000; New York; Merkin Concert Hall; Africa! Spirit ascending.

Axon, for violin & interactive computer.  Commission: Mari Kimura.  Première: Hong Kong; Mari Kimura, violin.

Batá, for orchestra (1985, rev. 1988).  New York: Peer Music, 1996.  Instrumentation: 2222 (piccolo; English horn, bass clarinet); 2221; 2 percussion, harp, piano, celeste; strings.  Commission: Bay Areas Women’s Philharmonic.  Dedication: “to my father.”  Duration: 7:00.

CD: Louisville Orchestra; Lawrence Leighton Smith or Lee Luvisi, conductor (1993/XII/03)  Louisville LCD 010 (1995).

CD: Foundation Philharmonic Orchestra; David Snell, conductor.  Atma ACD 22199 (1999).

Batéy, for countertenor, SSTTB & percussion, by Tania León and Michel Camillo (1989).  New York: Peer Music.  Text: Tania León, Michel Camilo.  Commission: Western Wind Vocal Ensemble.  Duration: 30:00.

CD: O. Ponce, F. Charlston, J. Passaro, percussion; Western Wind Vocal Ensemble; Puntilla and New Generation; Tania León, conductor.  CRI CD 662 (1994, Indígena).  Liner notes: K. Robert Schwarz, 23p. (Spanish translation: Jorge Covarrubias).

Canto.  Première: 2000; Tom Buckner, baritone; Continuum.

Carabali, for orchestra (1991)  New York: Peer Music.  Duration: 15:58.  Commission: Cincinnati Symphny Orchesta.  Instrumentation: 2222, English horn, bass clarinet, contrabassoon (piccolo); 4331; timpani, 3 percussion, harp, piano, celeste; strings.  Duration: 17:00.

CD: Louisville Orchestra; Gunther Schuller or Lee Luvisi, conductor (1993/XII/03.  Louisville LCD 010 (1995).

Carmencita, opera by George Bizet and Tania León (1978).  1.All together like one man; 2. Are you ready?; 3. Cabo e, by Ricardo Ray; 4. Carmencita, I adore you; 5. Dance; 6. Envia rayos y centellas, by Carmen Rosario; 7. Feeding your head; 8. Follow me to Guttenberg; 9. Follow our plan; 10. Hard to get; 11. I'll take you by the  hand; 12. Just a flower; 13. Let's move slowly; 14. Lilo's place; 15. Move your ass; 16. Osa's song; 17. Return to me; 18. Si tu me quisieras; 19. Take me the way I am; 20. A tender kiss; 21. Wallop that ball.  Text: Manuel Martin, Jr.  Première: 1978/V/19; New York, Intar Theatre, (24 performances); Marshall Blake; Giovanni Cotto; Brenda Feliciano; Carole Garcia; Felipe Gorostiza; Joey Infante; Adriane Maura; Rosane Michele; Lorena Palacio; Carmen Rosario; Liz Rosner; Miguel Sierra; Raymond Taylor; Walter Valentino; Tania L‚on, conductor.

Concerto criollo, for piano, timpani & orchestra (1977).  New York: Peer Music.  87p. Commission: National Endowment for the Arts.  Instrumentation: 2222; 4430; percussion; strings.  Première:1980/VIII/13; New York, Lincoln Center; Alison Dean, piano; Brooklyn Philharmonia; Tania León, conductor.  Duration: 20:00.

Crossings, for brass dixtour (1992).  New York: Peer Music.  Instrumentation: 1441.  Commission: City University of New York.  Duration: 1:00.

2 Cuban songs, for SSSAAATTTBBB; arr. by Tania León.  [1.] Drume negrita, by == Grenet; [2.] El manisero, by == Simons.  New York: Peer Music.  Commission: Chanticleer.  Duration: 6:00.

De color, for violin & marimba (1997).  New York: Peer Music.  Commission: Marimolin.  Duration: 15:00.

De memorias, for ==.  Première [?]: 2004/III/18; New York, Lincoln Center for the Performing arts, Daniel and Joanna S. Rose Studio;  Imani Winds.

De-orishas, for SSTTB & countertenor (1982).  New York: Peer Music.  Text: Betty Neals.  Commission: Western Wind Vocal Ensemble.  Duration: 11:00.

CD: Western Wind.  Newport Classic NPD 855-7 (1991, Satires, ballads, and bop).

Desde …, for orchestra.  Commission: Serge Koussevitzky Music Foundation and the American Composers Orchestra.  Première: 2001/III/18; New York; Carnegie Hall; American Composers Orchestra; Dante Anzolini, conductor.

Dougla, for ballet (1974).  New York: Peer Music.  Choreography: Geoffrey Holder.  For the Dance Theatre of Harlem.  Instrumentation: 2 flutes & percussion.  Duration: 20:00.

Drumming, for percussion & orchestra.  Commission: Miami Lioght Project, New World Symphony, Miami Dade Community College, Arizona State University.  Première: 1997; Miami; Miami Light Project and the New World Symphony.

Duende, for chamber ensemble.  Commission: Fest der Kontinente, for the 80th birthday of György Ligeti.  Première: members of the Berlin Philharmoniker.

El manisero; The peanut vendor.

CD: Chantecleer.  Teldec (Wondrous love).

Haiku, ballet for narrator & chamber ensemble.  (1973).  New York: Per Music.  Instrumentation: flute, bassoon, 5 percussion.  Commisioned by the Dance Theatre of Harlem.  Duration: 25:00.

Heart of ours; a piece, for tenor, men’s chorus, flute, 4 trumpets & 2 percussion (1988).  New York: Peer Music.  Text: R. Sandecki, Native American source.  Commission: Vietnam Veterans’ Theater Company.  Duration: 8:00.

Hebras d’luz, for viola, electrified.  Commission: Martha Mooke.  Première: New York, Greenwich House Arts, North River Series; Martha Mooke, viola.

Hechizos, for chamber orchestra (1995).  New York: Peer Music.  Instrumentation: 1110 (piccolo), bass clarinet (soprano saxophone, tenor saxophone); 1110; 2 percussion, piano (celeste, harpsichord), guitar; 1111.  Commission: Ensemble Modern.  Duration: 15:00.

Horizons, for orchestra.  Première: 1999/VII; Hamburg; Hammoniale Festival; NDR Symphony Orchestra; Peter Ruzicka, conductor.

Indígena, for chamber orchestra (1991).  New York: Peer Music.  Instrumentation: 1111; 1100; percussion; 2111.  Commission: New York City’s Town Hall.  Duration: 8:00.

CD: Continuum Chamber Ensemble [Jayn Rosenfeld, flute; M. Butler, oboe; David Gresham, clarinet; S. Heineman, bassoon; D. Grabois, horn; Richard Kelley, trumpet; E. Charlston, percussion; Cheryl Selzer, piano; Mark Steinberg, S. Kanin, violin; N. Katz, viola; Maria Kitsopoulos, cello; V. Kioulaphides, double bass] Tania León, conductor (1993/VI/04).  CRI CD 662 (1994, Indígena).  Liner notes: K. Robert Schwarz, 23p. (Spanish translation: Jorge Covarrubias).

Ivo, Ivo.  Première: Joe’s Pub at the Public Theater; Sequitur.

Journey, for high voice, flute & harp (1990)New York: Peer Music.  Commission: Jubal Trio.  Duration: 6:00.

CD: Jubal Trio [Christine Schadeber, soprano; Sue Ann Kahn, flute; Susan Holles, harp]. CRI SD 738 (1997).

Kabiosile, for piano & orchestra (1988).  New York: Peer Music.  Commission: American Composers Orchestra.  Instrumentation: 2222 (piccolo, Enhlish horn, bass clarinet, contrabassoon); 4230; timpani, 2 percussion; strings.  Première: 1988/XII/4; New York, Carnegie Hall; Ursula Oppens, piano; American Composers Orchestra; ==, conductor.  Duration: 6:30..

La ramera de la cueva, incidental music for the play by Matio Pena (1974).

La Tina, for piano.  Première: 2004/III/21; New York, Merkin Concert Hall.

Latin lights, ballet.  Première: 1983/I/22; Brooklyn Academy of Music; Charles Moore Dance Theatre; Brooklyn Philharmonic Chamber Ensemble; Tania León, conductor.

Love after love, fur soprano & marimba.  Text: Derek Walcott.  Commission: Mary Sharp Cronson.  Première: New York, Guggenheim Museum.

Maggie Magalita, for instrumental sextet (1980).  New York: Peer Music.  Incidental music to the play by Wendy Kesselman.  Instrumentation: flute, clarinet, 2 percusion, piano, guitar.  Commissioned: Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.  Duration: 25:00.

Mística, for piano.  Commission: Ursula Oppnes.  Première: Chicago, DePaul Concert Hall; Ursula Oppens, piano.

Momentum, for piano (1984).  New York: Peer Music, 1986 (01-085919-501).  8p.  Commission: Womens Composers Congress of Mexico.  Written for Yolanda Liepa; dedication: Joan Tower.  Duration: 7:50.

CD: Nanette Kaplan Solomon, piano.  Leonarda LE 334 (1994, Character sketches; solo piano works by 7 American women).

New York, for piano & orchestra.  Première: 1988/XII/4; New York, Carnegie Hall; American Composers Orchestra.

Or like a …, for baritone, violocello & percussion.  New York: Peer Music.  Text: John Ashbery.  Commission: WNYC.  Duration: 15:00.

¡Paisiamos semos; we’s hillbillies!, for guitar (1984).  New York: Peer Music, 1986.  Duration: 4:06.

CD: Ana Maria Rosado, guitar.  Albany Records TROY 087 (1992, We’ve got [poly]rhythm).

Para viola y orquesta (1994).  Instrumentation: 2222 (piccolo, alto flute, bass clarinet, contrabassoon); 2210; timpani, 2 percussion, celeste; strings.  Commission: Meet the Composer, Reader’s Digest.  Duration: 18:00.

Parjota delaté; from T to J, for instrumental quintet (1988).  New York: Peer Music.  Instrumentation: flute, clarinet, violin, cello & piano.  Commission: Da Capo Chamber Players.  Duration: 4:30.

CD: Continuum Chamber Ensemble [Jayn Rosenfeld, flute; David Gresham, clarinet; Mark Steinberg, violin; Maria Kitsopoulos, violoncello; Cheryl Selzer, piano]; Tania León, conductor (1993/VI/04).  CRI CD 662 (1994, Indígena).  Liner notes: K. Robert Schwarz, 23p. (Spanish translation: Jorge Covarrubias).

----- for woodwind quartet & piano (1990).  New York: Peer Music.  Instrumentation: flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon.  Written for the Netherlands Wind Ensemble.

Permutation seven, for instrumental sextet (1981).  New York: Peer Music.  Instrumentation: flute, clarinet, percussion, violin, cello.  Commission: Lincoln Center Institute.

Pet’s suite, for flute & piano, with percussion (1979).  New York: Peer Music, 1979.  23p. & part.  1. Kitten and Scrubbles; 2. Bonnie; 3. Ulfa and Muffin; 5. Ketty … Delilah … Henry; 6. Mei San; 7. Dulcie, Jeremy; 8. Mellow waltz; 9. Prince; 10. Bottons and Smaller.  Commission: Composers’ Forum.  Duration: 20:00.

4 Pieces, violoncello (1983).  New York: Peer Music, 1996.  Duration: 12:00.

2 Preludes, piano (1966).  1.Sorpesa  2. Pecera.

----- Bryn Mawr: Hildegard Publishing Co., 1992 (Black women composers, ed. by Helen Walker-Hill) p52-53.

Pueblo mulato; 3 songs on poems of Nicolas Guillén, for soprano & instrumental quintet (1987).  New York: Peer Music.  Text: Nicolas Guillén.  Instrumentation: oboe, guitar, percusion, piano, double bass.  Commission: Cornucopia Chamber Ensemble.  Duration: 12:00.

CD: Voices of Chicago.  CRI Exchange CD 773 (1998, Voces americanas).

Rabiosile, for piano & orchestra (1988).  New York: Peer Music, 1988.  Première: 1988/XII/4; New York, Carnegie Hall; American Composers Orchestra.  Duration: 8:00.

Rezos, for SATB.  Text: Jamaica Kincaid.  Commission: Terry Knowles and Marshall Rutter, for the Los Angeles Master Chorale.

Rituál, for piano (1987).  New York: Peer Music, 1987 (01-088127-501).  11p.  Commission: Affiliate Artists, Inc.  Dedication: Arthur Mitchell and Karel Shook.  Duration: 7:00.

CD: Clemens Leske, piano (1992).  CRI CD 662 (1994, Indígena).

CD: Karen Walwyn, piano.  Albany TROY 266 (1997, Dark fires; 20th-century music for piano).

CD: Martha Marchena, piano.  Albany TROY 242 (1997, Sonoric rituals, rarely performed Latin American piano music).

Saóko, for brass quartet (1997).  New York: Peer Music.  Commission: South Florida Composers Alliance, Center for Cultural Collaboration International, for the Meridian Arts Ensemble.  Duration: 9:00.

Scourge of Hyacinths, opera in 2 acts, for 3 tenors, 3 baritone, bass, 3 speakers & chamber ensemble. (1994).  New York: Peer Music.  Text: Tania Léon, after the radio play by Wole Soyinka.  Commission: Munich Biennale for New Music Theater. Award: BMW Prize as the best new opera of the Biennale.  Insrumentation: 1011 (p, alfl; Eb cl, bcl; cbn); alto saxophone (tenor saxophone); 1110 (cornet; 3 percussion, piano; solo strings  Première: Robert Wilson, stage designed; Tania León, conductor.  Duration: 90:00.

----- Oh Yemanja; mother’s prayer.

CD: Dawn Upshaw, soprano.  Nonesuch 79458 (The world so wide).

sin normas ajenas, for instrumental dixtour (1994).  New York: Peer Music.  Instrumentation: 1110 (piccolo); 2 percussion; 2110.  Commission: U.S.-Mexico Fund for Culture.  Duration: 12:00.

Singin’ sepia, for soprano, clarinet, violin & piano (4 hands).  New York: Peer Music (1996).  Text: Rita Dove.  Commission: Continuum Ensemble.

Sol de doce, for SSSAAATTTBBB (1997).  New York: Peer Music.  Text: Romance del sol de doce, by Pedro Mir.  Commission: Chamber Music America, Pew Chartiable Trust,  and Chanticleer.  Dedication: Louis Botto, founder of Chanticleer.  Première: 1997/IV/11.  Duration: 7:00.

Spiritual suite, ballet (1976).  Commission: 41st Eucharistic Congress.  Dedication: Martin Luther King.  Première: 1976; Marian Anserson, narrator.

7 Spirituals, for baritone & orchestra (1995).  New York: Peer Music  Instrumentation: 2111 (piccolo); 2211; 2 percussion, piano; strings.  Written for the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra.

Son sonora, for lute & guitar (1993),  New York: Peer Music.  Commissioned: Duologue.  Duration: 15:00.

The beloved, ballet for two dancers, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, piano, violoncello & double bass (1972).  New York: Peer Music.  For the Dance Theatre of Harlem.  Choreography: Judith Hamilton.  Instrumentation: 1111; piano; cello, double bass.  Duration: 10:00.

DVD: Dance Theater of HarlemThe beloved [choreography: Lester Horton];  Fall River legend  [choreography: Agnes de Mille]; Troy game [choreography: Robert North]; John Henry [choreography: Arthur Mitchell].  Chicago: Facets Video (DV65940), 1990  Duration: 117:00.

VHS: Chicago: Facets Multimedia, 1990 (S12215).

The golden windows, for chamber orchestra (1982).  New York: Peer Music.  Incidental music to the play by Robert Wilson.  Commission: Byrd Hoffman Foundation.  Instrumentation: flute, oboe (piccolo, alto flute, English horn); trumpet; percussion; harpsichord; piano; strings.  Duration: 30:00.

The Mozambique project, ballet, by Tania León and Donald Byrd.

To and fro, for medium voice & piano (1990).  New York: Peer Music.  Text: Alison Knowles. Commission: International Society for Contemporary Music.  Duration: 8:40.

Tones, ballet for piano & orchestra (1970).  New York: Peer Music.  Instrumentation: 2219; 1011; timpani, 2 perc, strings.  Commission: Dance Theatre of Harlem.  Première: New York, Avery Fisher Hall; Tania León, piano; Symphony of the New World; Kermit Moore, conductor. Duration: 18:00.

Variation, piano.  Première: 2004/V/2; Kalamazoo MI, Dalton Music Center, Gilmore International Keyboard Festival; Gilbert Kalish, piano.

14 Bibliography
Prof. Dominique-René de Lerma

“New work by Tania León premiered in Cincinnati” in Symphonium, v4n2 (1992/spring) p6.  [Carabeli]

“Tania León awarded Philhamonic post” in Symphonium, v5n2 (1993/spring) p8.

Abdul-Rahim, Raoul.  Blacks in classical music; a personal history.  New York: Dodd, Mead, 1977.

Asner, Marie. “—==“ in Women of note quarterly, v5n3 (1997/XI) p17-18.

Black perspective in music,  v3n3, p327; v17, p197, 198, 199; v18, p242 (Léon), 243, 244.

Bull, Storm.  Index to biographies of contemporary composers, vol. 3.   Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1987.   xxiv, 854p.  ISBN 0-8108-1930-9. (1944-)

Burns, L.  “Tania Leon discovers the baton’s force” in Encore (1980/X) p47.

Carter, Madison H.  An annotated catalogue of composers of African ancestry.  New York: Vantage Press, 1986.

Center for Black Music Research.  Digest, v3n3, p4, 5

Cohen, Aaron I.  International catalogue of women composers.  New York: R. R. Bowker, 1981.

Cohen, Aaron.  International encyclopedia of women composers.  2nd ed.  New York: R. R. Bowker, 1987.

Ericson, Raymond.  “Notes; A conductor from Cuba” in New York times (1980).

Gray 1988

Handy, D. Antoinette. Black conductors.  Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 1995.  2nd ed.  570p.  ISBN 0-8108-2930-4.  Original edition issued  in 1981.

Handy 1995

Horne, Aaron.  String music by Black American composers.  Westport: Greenwood Press, 1991 (Music reference collection, no. 33).  xx, 327p.  Foreword by Dominique-René de Lerma.  ISBN 0-313-27938-1. +

Horne, Aaron.  Woodwind music by Black American composers.  Westport: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Hyslop, Sandra.  “The sound in America” in Symphony (===) p41, 43.

Iadavaia-Cox, Angela.  “Tania Leon; the tug between conducting and composing” in Essence (1976/XII) p72.

Kiraly, Philippa.  “Tania León; musical melding” in Symphony, v42n5 ”(1991/IX-X) p29.

León, Tania.  “Plyrhythmia in the music of Cuba

Lundy, Anne.  “Conversations with three symphonic conductors: Dennis DeCoteau, Tania León, Jon Robinson” in Black perspective in music, v16n2 (1988/fall) p213-226.

Mandel, H.  “Tania León; Beyound borders” in Ear; Magazine of new music, v13 (1988XII-1989/I) p12-13.

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Rommen. Tmothy.  “León, Tania Justina” by Timothy Rommen and Amy C. Beal, in International dictionary of Black composers, ed. by Samuel A. Floyd, Jr.  Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999, v2, p714-721.

Shen, Ted.  “Taste of Tania Leon comes to Grant Park” in Chicago tribune (1994/VII/31) section 6, p7.

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