William Levi Dawson, African American Composer & Choral Director


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Negro Folk Symphony
American Symphony Orchestra
Leopold Stokowski. Conductor
Deutsche Grammophon 477 6502 (2007)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Negro Folk Symphony
American Symphony Orchestra
Leopold Stokowski. Conductor
(Cover of original LP:
American Decca DL 10077)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Home -> Composers -> Dawson, William Levi

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William Levi Dawson  (1899-1990)

African American Composer & Professor

Renowned Choral Director at Tuskegee Institute


 


Table of Contents

  1 Tuskegee Student
  2 Bachelor of Music
  3 Master's Degree
  4 Tuskegee Faculty
  5 Resignation
  6 Honors
  7 Negro Folk Symphony
 
8 Revision
  9 Stokowski Recording
 10 Death
 11 Online Exhibition

 12 Works  
 13 Bibliography


William Levi Dawson
 


 

http://marbl.library.emory.edu/collection-overview/african-american-collections
 

1 Tuskegee Student
William Levi Dawson was an African American composer, professor and choir director.  He was born on September 26, 1899 in Anniston, Alabama. Dominique-René de Lerma, Professor of Music at Lawrence University in Appleton, Wisconsin has been writing about Black classical music for decades.  He has made his research entry on William Levi Dawson available to this Website:        

He was born in Anniston Alabama and ran away from home at age 13 to enter Tuskegee Institute (at this time youngsters wishing a full pre-college education could only secure this on a college campus).  While there he studied with Frank L. Drye and Alice Carter Simmons, played in the schools’ instrumental ensembles, serve as music librarian, and toured for five years with the Institute Singers.  His initial activity as composer began when he was 16.

2 Bachelor of Music
Dawson pursued additional music studies upon graduation from Tuskegee Institute, and held various positions in music as well, Prof. De Lerma tells us:          

In 1921, when graduated from Tuskegee, he spent a year at Washburn College in Topeka Kansas and directed the music program at the Topeka Vocational College.  He was engaged that summer as tenor and trombonist with the Redpath Chautauqua.  Following this he enrolled at the Horner Institute of Fine Arts in Kansas City Missouri, where, in 1925, he won his B.M. degree, but was not allowed on stage to receive his diploma.

3 Master's Degree
The research entry details Dawson's Master's Degree in Music, his postgraduate study and subsequent private study:           

From 1922 to 1926 he taught at Lincoln High School in Kansas City, Kansas.  From here he went to the American Conservatory of Music in Chicago (M.M., 1927), performing as first trombonist with the Civic Orchestra (1926-1930).  After graduating, he studied with Carl Busch and Regina G. Hall.  Additional work was undertaken at the Eastman School of Music.  He was also a private student of Adolf Weidig, Horvard Otterstrom, and Felix Borowski.

4 Tuskegee Faculty
William Levi Dawson returned to Tuskegee Institute to teach in 1931, and ran the Music Department for 25 years.  Prof. De Lerma writes:               

He was virtually the entire music faculty at Tuskegee from 1931 to 1956.

Wikipedia Encyclopedia notes Dawson brought renown to the Tuskegee Institute Choir:            

He also developed the choir into an internationally known ensemble.  Dawson directed the Tuskegee Institute Choir which was invited to sing at New York City's Radio Music Hall in 1932 for a week of six daily performances.

5 Resignation
We learn from Dominique-René de Lerma that Dawson seemed to be frustrated on occasion, and submitted his resignation repeatedly before it was accepted:                

Dawson appeared at times to be disgruntled and, following his annual resignations from Tuskegee, was allowed his freedom in that last year.  His tours as choral conductor started in 1956, when the State Department sent him to Spain.

6 Honors
Three honorary doctorates and two Wanamaker awards were among the many honors received by William Levi Dawson, according to the research entry:                  

A recommendation for the Harmond Award in 1926 was submitted by H. T. FitzSimmons, whose firm had already published four of his works.  He was honored with two Wanamaker Awards (1930 and 1931) and was given honorary doctorates by Tuskegee University in 1955, by Lincoln University in 1978, and by Ithaca College in 1982.  In 1963 the University of Missouri-Kansas City presented him with the Alumni Achievement Award.  In 1975, he was elected to the Alabama Arts Hall of Fame and presented with the Alabama Fine Arts Award in 1980.  Other honors include an award from the American Choral Directors Association (1975), the Marshall Bartholomew Award from the Intercollegiate Music Council (1981), and the Heinecke Award from the Society of European Stage Authors and Composers (1983).

7 Negro Folk Symphony
Dawson's Negro Folk Symphony  (28:26) was recorded by the Detroit Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Neeme Järvi, Conductor, on Chandos 9226 (1993). 
Michael Fleming's liner notes follow the work from its origins in Chicago to its premiere in Philadelphia and to the comments of a music critic for a New York newspaper:         

Dawson began work on the Negro Folk Symphony while in Chicago.  On tour with the Tuskegee choir in New York he showed the manuscript to the conductor Leopold Stokowski, who made suggestions for its expansion.  In this form, comprising three movements, it was first performed by the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1934.  The critic for the New York World Telegram  was at the premiere and he praised the symphony's 'imagination, warmth, drama---[and] sumptuous orchestration'.  In its overall shape, and especially in its orchestration, the symphony falls into the late-Romantic tradition.

The Detroit Symphony Orchestra's recording of the Negro Folk Symphony has been reissued on Chandos 9909 (2001).  The disc also includes three works by Duke Ellington.

8 Revision
The three movements of the symphony are entitled: The Bond of Africa, Hope in the Night and O, le' me shine, shine like a Morning Star!  Michael Fleming explains that Dawson revised the work after visiting Africa.  He also provides some of the composer's remarks:                 

After a trip to West Africa in 1952, however, the composer revised it to embody authentic African rhythmic patterns, and it was in this form that Stokowski recorded it, and it is most frequently played today.

The symphony can be appreciated purely as a musical work, without any knowledge of the melodies or feelings that form its background.  There are strong programmatic elements in the piece, however, as the composer's own remarks, written for the world premiere, make clear:

'This Symphony is based entirely on Negro folk-music.  The themes are taken from what are popularly known as Negro spirituals, and the practised ear will recognize the recurrence of characteristic themes throughout the composition.'

9 Stokowski Recording
Leopold Stokowski conducted the first performance of Dawson's Negro Folk Symphony in 1934. He also recorded the work for Decca Records in 1963.  The LP recording has since been  reissued on CD by Deutsche Grammophon as DG 477 6502 (2007).  Alan Newcombe says in the liner notes that the work was important to the evolution of the American symphony:

His Negro Folk Symphony was first performed by Leopold Stokowski with the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1934. After making a study of indigenous African music, in 1952 Dawson revised his work to give it a more "African" rhythmic underpinning. While recalling the idiom of Dvorak's "New World" Symphony and the cyclic principles of the César Franck school, not to mention Bruckner's Fourth at the opening of the last movement, the work's individuality of texture and rhythmic energy make it a significant, albeit largely unacknowledged, contribution to the development of the American symphony.

10 Death
Dawson's spirituals have been widely sung by choral groups for several generations.
 The extensive Works list below includes recordings on 78 rpm record, LP record and CD.  Among the CDs is Ain' a that good news!  It is performed by Kathleen Battle, soprano, and Christopher Parkening, guitar, on EMI Classics 47196 (1990).  William Levi Dawson died in Montgomery, Alabama on May 5, 1990. 

11 Online Exhibition
Randall K. Burkett, Curator of African American Collections, Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library, Emory University, says of the Dawson papers:      

“In fact, they are permanently at Emory, fully processed, and available for research. The papers were donated to us by Dawson’s nephew, Milton L. Randolph, Jr. It is an extensive and quite wonderful collection.”

Mr. Burkett describes the online exhibition for the papers of Dawson, which is found at http://larson.library.emory.edu/dawson/web/main/intro

“...we have created an extensive web site, with funding from the Ford Foundation, to provide access both to the Dawson papers at Emory and to the Symposium, 'African American Music and Identity at the Dawn of the 21st Century' that was held at Emory in celebration of the opening of those papers.”

12 Works
Prof. Dominique-René de Lerma
Contents of the following recordings have not been determined:
 
LP: Bethel Choir; Robert Borgland, conductor. Ark 5243-S (1973) [Ark Recording Co., 4428 Zane Avenue, Minneapolis MN 55422].

LP?: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William Dawson, conductor. Victor 2001.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William Dawson, conductor. Westminster 9623.

78rpm?: Victor 4556.

CD: Eastern High Choir. Elan 2210.

CD: Jeannette Thompson, soprano; David Miller, piano; Iepers Chamber Choir; Dirk Coutigny, conductor. Pavane 7267.

CD: Cantus. Cantus 1203 (c2003). Liner notes: Erick Lichte.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William Dawson, conductor. Westminster 8154 (1971)
 
Victor 4556.

Ain'a that good news?, for SATB with piano reduction (1937). Tuskegee: Music Press, 1937. 8p. (Tuskegee choir series, 103). Duration: 2:00.

----- for SATB (rev.) Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos (Tuskegee Choir series, T-103A). Duration: 1:14. Library: Schomburg, Spingarn.

CD: Atlanta Singers. ACA 20046.

CD: Brazeal Dennard Chorale; Brazeal Dennard, conductor. BDC 4444 (1999, Remembering, discovering, preserving).

CD: St. Olaf Choir; Anton E. Armstrong, conductor. St. Olaf Records E-2159 (1997). Liner notes: Dominique-René de Lerma; “Conductor’s notes” by Anton E. Armstrong.
 
LP: Bethel Seventh-Day Adventist Youth Choir [Canton NC]; Calvin Carter, conductor.RSR-523.

LP: Choir of St. James Episcopal Church, Baltimore; Maurice Murphy, conductor.Audio Art.

LP: Howard University Choir; Warner Lawson, conductor. Victor LSC-7043 (1966).

LP: Syracuse Music Festival Chorus; Elaine Brown, conductor. Desto DC-102 (1962).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971,1968).

LP: Virginia State College Choir; Eugene Thamon Simpson, conductor.Black Heritage Recordings O-645 (Black heritage series, v2; 1970).

LP: Virginia Union University Chorus; Odell Hobbs, conductor.Richsound 3081.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1968).

LP: Howard University Choir; Warner Lawson, conductor. Victor LSC-7043 (1966).

LP: Virginia Union University; Odell Hobbs, conductor. Richsound 3081.

----- for SSAA? (revised) San Diego: Neil A. Kjos. (T-140).

----- for TTBB with piano reduction. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1937. 8p. (Tuskegee choir series, 104) Library: Yale.

----- for TTBB (revised). Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos (Tuskegee choir series, T-104A).

An Easter canticle, for alto, SSA, & violin. n.p.?: Schmitt. (#2543).

Before the sun goes down, for soprano, tenor, SATB & echo chorus. Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos (Tuskegee choir series, T111).

Behold the star, for soprano, tenor, SATB & echo choir, with piano reduction (1946). Tuskegee: Tuskegee: Music Press, 1946 (T-111). 10p. Duration: 4:23. Library: Library of Congress.

CD: Marvis Martin, soprano; St. Olaf Choir; Anton E. Armstrong, conductor. St. Olaf Records E-2159 (1997). Liner notes: Dominique-René de Lerma; “Conductor’s notes” by Anton E. Armstrong.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

LP: Virginia State College Choir; Eugene Thamon Simpson, conductor. Black Heritage Recordings O-645 (Black heritage series, v2; 1970).

LP: Virginia Union University Choir; Odell Hobbs, conductor. Richmond Sound Stages RSWWO-626.

Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos (#T-111).

Break, break, break, for SATB & orchestra (1928). 40p. Text: Alfred Lord Tennyson. Library: Yale.

Deep river, for SATB. Duration: 3:18.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

Done made my vow.

LP: Howard University Chorus; Warner Lawson, conductor. RCA LSC-7043 (1966).

Every time I feel the spirit, for baritone & SATB (1946). Tuskegee: Music Press, 1946. (#T-117). Duration: 1:37. Library: Library of Congress.

CD: Anthony Brown, baritone. The spiritual project (Toil and triumph).

CD: Lawrence Burnett, baritone; St. Olaf Choir; Anton E.Armstrong, conductor. St. Olaf Records E-2159 (1997). Liner notes: Dominique-René de Lerma. “Conductor’s notes” by Anton E. Armstrong.

LP: Jacqueline Ruffin, mezzo-soprano; Virginia State College Choir; Eugene Thamon Simpson, conductor. Black Heritage Recordings O-645 (Black heritage series, v2; 1970).

LP: Ladue High School Chorale of St. Louis; Joe D. Richardson, conductor. KBK Custom Records MK-27-75 (1972).

LP: Leontyne Price, soprano; Rust College Choir; Lassaye van Buren Holmes, conductor. RCA LSC-3183 (1971).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).
LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

LP: Unidentified performers. Victor LSC-3183.

---- for SSAA. Tuskegee: Music Press; Neil A. Kjos.

LP: Ladue High School Chorale of St. Louis; Joe D. Richardson, conductor. KBK Custom Records MK-27-75 (1972).

LP: Spellman College Glee Club; Roland L. Allison, conductor. Mark Custom UMC-2117.

LP: Spelman College Glee Club; Roland L. Allison, conductor. Mark Custom UMC-2117.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos, 1946.

----- for SSA. Tuskegee: Music Press (#T-126).

----- for TTBB & baritone. Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos (#T-125).

Ezekiel saw the wheel, for SATB (1942). Tuskegee: Music Press, 1942 (Tuskegee Choir series, T-110). 13p. Text after Ezekiel 10:9-13. Duration: 2:16. Library: Yale.

AC: Paranjoti Choir of India. (Bergen Festival Program; 1961).

AC: University Singers of the State University of New York, Fredonia. Mark Custom Recording Service MCC-629 (1990).

CD: St. Olaf Choir; Anton E. Armstrong, conductor. St. Olaf Records E-2159 (1997). Liner notes: Dominique-René de Lerma; “Conductor’s notes” by Anton E. Armstrong.

LP: Illinois Wesleyan University Choir; Lewis E. Wikehart, conductor. PRC CC-4.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

LP: University of British Columbia University Singers; James Farkhauser, conductor. Canadian Music Centre.

LP: Virginia State College Choir; Eugene Thamon Simpson, conductor. Black Heritage Recordings O-645 (Black heritage series, v2; 1970).

Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-110).

Feed-a my sheep, for SATB & piano. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1971. 11p. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-134). Text: G. Lake.

----- for SSA & piano. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1971. 11p. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-135).

----- for TTBB & piano. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1971. 11p. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-113)

Forever thine, for medium voice & piano. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1920. 5p. Library: Spingarn.

Go to sleep; lullaby, for low voice & piano. Chicago: H. T. FitzSimons, 1926. Text: Vernon N. Ray. Library: Spingarn, Yale (manuscript, with violin).

----- SATB & piano. Chicago: H. T. FitzSimons, 1920. 5p. (Aeolian series of choral music; #1006).

----- SSA & piano. Chicago: H. T. FitzSimons, 1926. 5p. Library: Library of Congress.

Great day, for SATB.

Hail Mary, for alto & SATB with piano reduction (1946). Tuskegee: Music Press, 1946 (Tuskegee Choir series, T-112). Duration: 4:23.

CD: St. Olaf Choir; Anton E. Armstrong, conductor. St. Olaf Records E-2159 (1997). Liner notes: Dominique-René de Lerma; “Conductor’s notes” by Anton E. Armstrong.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

LP: Virginia State College Choir; Eugene Thamon Simpson, conductor.Black Heritage Recordings O-645 (Black heritage series, v2; 1970).

Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos.

----- for baritone & TTBB. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1946. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-123)

Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos.

I couldn't hear nobody pray, for soprano & SATB with piano reduction, 1920). Chicago: H. T. FitzSimons, 1920. 7p. (Aeolian series of choral music). Library: Spingarn.

----- Tuskegee: Music Press, 1967 (Tuskegee Choir series, T-127). 7p. Duration: 2:43.

LP: C. W. Post College Chamber Singers; Leo A. Dashnaw, conductor. Golden Crest CRSQ-4173.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

I wan' to be ready, for alto, baritone, SATB & piano (1967). Tuskegee: Music Press, 1967. 15p. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-127). Duration: 1:48.

LP: Karen Whitney, mezzo-soprano; Anthony McGregor, tenor; Virginia Union University Choir; Odell Hobbs, conductor. Gerald Lewis Recordings MC-8806.

CD: St. Olaf Choir; Anton E. Armstrong, conductor. St. Olaf Records E-2159 (1997). Liner notes: Dominique-René de Lerma; “Conductor’s notes” by Anton E. Armstrong.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

----- for soprano, alto, SSA & piano. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1967. 15p. (Tuskegee Choir series, 129).

----- for SSAA?. Tuskegee: Music Press (Tuskegee Choir series, 130).

----- for TTBB?. Tuskegee: Music Press (Tuskegee Choir series, 128).

In his care-o, for SATB (1961). Tuskegee: Tuskegee: Music Press, 1961. 14p. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-122). Duration: 2:53.

CD: Cantus. Cantus 1203 (2003). Liner notes: Erick Lichte.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor.Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

LP: Morgan State University Choir; Nathan Carter, conductor. Silver Crest MOR-111977 (1977).

LP: Virginia Union University Choir; Odell Hobbs, conductor. Gerald Lewis Recording MC-8806.

----- for tenor, baritone, TTBB & piano. Tuskegee: Music Press (Tuskegee Choir series, 123)

Interlude, piano. 5p. Library: Yale.

I've been 'buked, for SATB. Duration: 2:12.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

King Jesus is-a listening, for soprano & SATB with piano reduction (1925). Chicago: H. T. FitzSimons, 1925 (Aeolian series of choral music, F2004). Duration: 2:58.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

LP: Virginia State College Choir; Eugene Thamon Simpson, conductor. Black Heritage Recordings O-645 (Black heritage series, v2; 1970).

Jesus walked this lonesome valley, for high voice & piano. Chicago: Gamble Hinged Music, 1927. 5p. (#818) "From the singing of my cousin, Mrs. Blanche Dawson-Roney, Tuskegee Inst., Alabama." Library: Library of Congress, Spingarn.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

LP: Virginia State College Choir; Eugene Thamon Simpson, conductor. Black Heritage Recordings O-645 (Black heritage series, v2; 1970).

---- for medium voice & piano. Chicago: Gamble Hinged Music, 1927.

LP: Arthur Warner, baritone; J. Spencer Hammond, piano. Phase II 8178-1.

LP: John Patton, tenor; C. Edward Thomas, piano. Narthex Recording N-69085 (c1969; Black spirituals and art songs).

----- for low voice & piano. Chicago: Gamble Hinged Music, 1927. Library: Library of Congress.

----- for SATB (1927). Chicago: Gamble Hinged Music, 1927. 5p. (#818).

----- for SATB & piano. New York: Warner Brothers, 1927. 6p. (G-821).

----- for SSAA & piano. New York: Remick Music, 1950. (Remick sacred choral library, 3-G1839) Library: Library of Congress.

----- for TTBB & piano.

Jump back, honey, for medium voice & piano. Kansas City: Wunderliche Piano Co., 1923. 6p. Text: Paul Laurence Dunbar. Library: Library of Congress.

----- for orchestra. Chicago: H. T. FitzSimons. Won: Rodman Wanamaker prize, 1930.

King Jesus is a-listening, for SATB with piano reduction. Chicago: H. T. FitzSimons, 1925. 7p. (Aeolian series of choral music, 2004) Library: Library of Congress, Spingarn.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

----- for SSA with piano reduction. Chicago: H. T. FitzSimons, 1946. Library: Library of Congress.

Listen to the lambs, for SATB.

LP: Mormon Tabernacle Choir; J. Spencer Cornwall, conductor. Columbia ML-5048 (1954)..

LP: Mormon Tabernacle Choir; J. Spencer Cornwall, conductor. Philips NBL-5012 (1954).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

Lit’l boy child, for soprano, baritone & SATB (1942). Tuskegee: Music Press, 1942.[3] 9p. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-120). Library: Library of Congress.

LP: Consuela Peterson, soprano; Melvin Cooper, bass; Virginia State College Choir; Eugene Thamon Simpson, conductor.Black Heritage Recordings O-645 (Black heritage series, v2; 1970).

Lovers plighted, for SATB. Won: Rodman Wanamaker award, 1931.

Mary had a baby, for soprano & SATB (1947). Tuskegee: Music Press, 1947. 6p. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-118). Duration: 3:27. Library: Library of Congress.

CD: Marvis Martin, soprano; St. Olaf Choir; Anton E. Armstrong, conductor. St. Olaf Records E-2159 (1997). Liner notes: Dominique-René de Lerma; “Conductor’s notes” by Anton E. Armstrong.

LP: Earlin Tipton, soprano; Dillard University Concert Choir; S. Carver Davenport, conductor. M.G.H. Historical Society MGH-82289 (1989).

LP: Ingres Hill, soprano; Virginia State College Choir; Eugene Thamon Simpson, conductor. Black Heritage Recordings O-645 (Black heritage series, v2; 1970).

LP: Kathleen Battle, soprano; orchestra; Leonard Slatkin, conductor. Angel DS 37363 (1986).

LP: Linda Clark, soprano; Wendell Phillips High School A Cappella Choir; Andrew Duncan, conductor (North Central MENC, Fargo SD; 1969/04/27).Silver Crest NC-69-1B.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

LP: Yale University Chorus; J. Somay, conductor. Carillon Records LP-101.

----- TTBB & tenor. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1947. (T-133?) Library: Library of Congress.

Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos (Tuskegee Choir series, T-119)

My Lord, what a mourning, for low voice & piano. Chicago: H. T. FitzSimons, 1927. 5p. Text: Matthew 24:29-31. Dedication: Marian Anderson. Library: Library of Congress, Spingarn.

----- for SATB. Chicago: H. T. FitzSimmons, 1926 (F 2009).

----- for male chorus.

Negro folk symphony (1932 == or 1934).[4] 1. The bond of Africa; 2. Hope in the night; 3. O le' me shine. Instrumentation: 2222, p, Eh. Eb cl, bcl, cbsn; 4331, timp, perc, harp, strings. Première: 1934/XI/24; Philadelphia, Academy of Music; Philadelphia Orchestra; Leopold Stokowski, conductor. Duration: 28:26.

----- (rev. 1952). Delaware Water Gap: Shawnee Music Press, 1965, 1963. 162p. Library: Library of Congress (LC 66-34572; also 1963 holograph, 52p.).

----- rev. 1952. Delaware Water Gap: Shawnee Music Press, 1965, 1963. 162p.

CD: American Symphony Orchestra; Leopold Stokowski, conductor (1963). MCA MCAD 2-9826.

CD: Detroit Symphony Orchestra; Neeme Järvi, conductor (1992). Chandos CHAN 9909.

CD: Detroit Symphony Orchestra; Neeme Järvi, conductor. Chandos CHAN 9226 (1993, American music series, v5). Liner notes: Michael Flemming (German translation: Inge Moore; French translation: Paulette Hutchinson)19p.

LP: American Symphony Orchestra; Leopold Stokowski, conductor (1963). Decca DC-10077.

LP: American Symphony Orchestra; Leopold Stokowski, conductor (1963). Decca DL-71007.

LP: American Symphony Orchestra; Leopold Stokowski, conductor (1963). Decca DL-74-1077.

LP: American Symphony Orchestra; Leopold Stokowski, conductor (1963). Decca AXA 4520.

LP: American Symphony Orchestra; Leopold Stokowski, conductor (1963). Varèse/Sarabande VC 81056.

LP: American Symphony Orchestra; Leopold Stokowski, conductor (1963). King SDL 15040.

LP: American Symphony Orchestra; Leopold Stokwski, conductor (1963). Decca SXZ 4520.

Negro folk song, for orchestra (1940 or 1941==). Commission: Columbia Broadcasting System.

Negro work song, for orchestra (1941). Commission: CBS for American School of the Air (1940). Based on Stewball. Library: New York Public Library (holograph).

Oh, what a beautiful city, for medium voice & piano (1939). Tuskegee: Music Press, 1934. Text based on Revelation: 21:12-13.

LP: Isador Oglesby, tenor; John Miller, piano. Praise 659 (1979).

LP: Jacqueline Ruffin, mezzo-soprano; Virginia State College Choir; Eugene Thamon Simpson, conductor. Black Heritage Recordings O-645 (Black heritage series, v2; 1970).

LP: Louise Bohannon, mezzo-soprano; Virginia Union University Choir; Odell Hobbs, conductor. Gerald Lewis Recording MC-8806.

----- for SATB with piano reduction. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1934. 11p. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-100) Library: Spingarn, Yale.

Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos (Tuskegee Choir series, T-110).

Old-time religion.

78rpm:: Tuskegee Quartet. Victor 10519.

Out in the fields with God, for medium voice & piano. Chicago: Gamble Hinged Music Co., 1929? 5p. (874) Text: Louise Imogen Guiney. Text: Louise Imogen Guiney. Duration: 3:19. Library: Library of Congress, Spingarn.

----- for SATB & piano (ca. 1929). Chicago: Gamble Hinged Music, 1929.

New York: Remick Music, 1929. 9p. Library: Library of Congress.

----- for SATB & orchestra or wind ensemble. San Diego: Neil A. Kjos. 13p. Library: Yale (manuscript)

----- Tuskegee: Music Press, 1962, 1929. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-130). 10p.

LP: Morgan State University Choir; Patricia Springer, piano; Nathan Carter, conductor. Silver Crest MOR-111977 (1977).

---- for high voice & orchestra. San Diego: Neil A. Kjos, 1957 (TH-130).

LP: Cynthia Bedford, mezzo-soprano; Oakland Youth Orchestra; Robert Hughes, conductor. Desto DC-7101 (1971).

----- for high voice & piano. San Diego: Neil A. Kjos, 1957. (TH-130).

----- for high voice & wind ensemble.

----- for SSA with orchestra or wind ensemble. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1962, 1929. 8p. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-131).

Pilgrim’s chorus from Tannhäuser, by Richard Wagner, for SATB with piano reduction, arr. by William Dawson, with new text. (1967). Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos, 1967. 15p. Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos. (#Ed. 5490). 15p. Duration: 4:40.

LP: Morgan State University Choir; Nathan Carter, conductor. Silver Crest MSC-2108 (1981).

----- for TTBB with piano reduction. Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos, 1967. 15p. (#Ed. 5490).

Rockin' Jerusalem, for SATB. Duration: 2:32.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

Scherzo, orchestra (1930). Duration: 15:00. Won: Rodman Wanamaker prize, 1930.

Slumber song, for SATB. San Diego: Neil A. Kjos, 1974. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-138) Text: Vernon N. Ray. Library: Library of Congress.

----- for SA & piano. San Diego, Neil A. Kjos. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-136).

----- for SSA & piano. San Diego: Neil A. Kjos. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-137).

----- for TTBB & piano. San Diego: Neil A. Kjos. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-139).

Sonata, violin & piano, A major (1927).[5]

Soon ah will be done, for SATB with piano reduction. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1934. 11p. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-102A) Duration: 4:39. Library: Library of Congress, Spingarn, Yale.

AC: Paranjoti Choir of India. (Bergen Festival Program; 1961).

CD: Moses Hogan Chorale (1997, Our choral heritage series).

CD: St. Olaf Choir; Anton E. Armstrong, conductor. St. Olaf Records E-2159 (1997). Liner notes: Dominique-René de Lerma; “Conductor’s notes” by Anton E. Armstrong.

LP: Bethel Seventh-Day Adventist Youth Choir [Canton NC]; Calvin Carter, conductor.RSR-523

LP: Brank Krsmanovich Chorus of Jugoslavia. Monitor MP-576.

LP: Morris Brown College Concert Choir; G. Johnson Hubert, conductor. Custom Records 002.

LP: Roger Wagner Chorale; Roger Wagner, conductor. Capitol P-8431.

LP: Virginia State College Choir; Eugene Thamon Simpson, conductor. Black Heritage Recordings O-645 (Black heritage series, v2; 1970).

-----TTBB with piano reduction. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1947, 1934. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-101A) 11p.

Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos, 1962, 1947, 1934. 11p.

CD: Elliott Robinson, baritone; Morehouse Glee Club; Harding Epps, Jr., conductor. MHGC (One moment in time).

CD: Morehouse Glee Club; David Morrow, conductor. MHGC (Giving).

LP: DePaur Infantry Chorus; Leonard DePaur, conductor. Columbia AL-45.

----- for TTBB with piano reduction. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1947, 1934. 11p. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-101A) Library: Library of Congress.

LP: DePaur Infantry Chorus; Leonard DePaur, conductor. Columbia AL-45.

Steal away, for SATB. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1942. (T-108). 9p. Library: Yale.

Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-108).

----- for TTBB. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1942. 9p. Library: Yale.

Recorded: Victor 20519 (Tuskegee Quartet)

Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-109).

CD: St. Olaf Choir; Anton E. Armstrong, conductor. St. Olaf Records E-2159 (1997). Liner notes: Dominique-René de Lerma; “Conductor’s notes” by Anton E. Armstrong.

Swing low, sweet chariot, for soprano & SATB. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1946. Duration: 3:44. Library: Library of Congress.

Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-114).

AC: Paranjoti Choir of India. (Bergen Festival Program; 1961).

CD: Marvis Martin, soprano; St. Olaf Choir; Anton E. Armstrong, conductor. St. Olaf Records E-2159 (1997). Liner notes: Dominique-René de Lerma; “Conductor’s notes” by Anton E. Armstrong.

----- for soprano or alto & SSA. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1946. Library: Library of Congress.

Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos (Tuskegee Choir series, T-116).

----- for TTBB. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1946. Library: Library of Congress.

Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos (Tuskegee Choir series, T-115).

----- 1973 rev.

Symphony, no. 1, E flat major. 61p. Library: Yale (manuscript).

Talk about a chile that do love Jesus, for high voice & piano (1927). Chicago: H. T. FitzSimmons, 1927.

78rpm: Charles Holland, tenor; Ralph Linsley, piano. Victor 4556.

----- for low voice & piano. Chicago: H. T. FitzSimons, 1927. Library: Library of Congress.

LP: Inez Matthews, mezzo-soprano; Jonathan Brice, piano. Period SPL-580 (1953).

----- for SATB with piano reduction. Chicago: H. T. FitzSimons, 1927. 5p. (Aeolian series of choral music, 2015) Library: Spingarn.

LP: Consuela Peterson, soprano; Virginia State College Choir; Eugene Thamon Simpson, conductor. Black Heritage Recordings O-645 (Black heritage series, v2; 1970).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

The mongrel Yank; A Yankee is a mixture of many races, op. 6, for TTBB & piano. Chicago: Gamble Hinged Music, 1930. 14p. (Gamble's selection of secular part songs for men's voices, 939) Text: Allen Quade. Library: Spingarn.

The rugged Yank, for medium voice & piano. San Diego: Neil A. Kjos. (TL-132) Text: Allen Quade.

----- for low voice & piano. San Diego: Neil A. Kjos. (TL-132).

----- for SATB & piano

----- for tenor, TTBB & piano. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1920, 1971. 15p. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-133) Library: Library of Congress (1920 imprint).

There is a balm in Gilead, for SATB with piano reduction (1939). Tuskegee: Music Press, 1939. 8p. Text: Jeremiah 8:22. Duration: 5:12.

Park Ridge, San Diego: Neil A. Kjos, 1967, 1939 (Tuskegee Choir series, T-105).

----- for soprano & SATB with piano reduction. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1939. 8p. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-105). Text: Jeremiah 8:22. Dedication: G. Lakelines. Library: Library of Congress, Yale.

CD: Leontyne Price, soprano; Rust College Choir; Lassaye van Buren Holmes, conductor. BMG 09026-68157-2(1996).

CD: Marvis Martin, soprano; St. Olaf Choir; Anton E. Armstrong, conductor. St. Olaf Records E-2159 (1997). Liner notes: Dominique-René de Lerma; “Conductor’s notes” by Anton E. Armstrong.

LP?: Augustana Choir; Henry Veld, conductor Word 2019

LP?: Augustana Choir; Henry Veld, conductor Key 2019.

LP: Clarissa Cooper, soprano; Virginia State College Choir; Eugene Thamon Simpson, conductor. Black Heritage Recordings O-645 (Black heritage series, v2; 1970).

LP: Leontyne Price, soprano; Rust College Choir; Lassaye van Buren Holmes, conductor.RCA LSC-3183 (1971).

LP: Linda Fulton, soprano; Illinois Wesleyan University Choir; Lewis Wikehart, conductor. RPC CC-5.

LP: Morris Brown College Concert Chorus; G. Johnson Hubert, conductor. Custom Records 002.

LP: Phillips High School Chorus; Andrew Duncan, conductor. Delta Records XCTV-63866.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor.Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

LP: Unidentified performers. Victor LSC-3183.

----- for high voice & piano. San Diego: Neil A. Kjos. (TH-105).

----- for low voice & piano. San Diego: Neil A. Kjos. (TL-105).

----- for soprano & SSA with piano reduction. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1939. Library: Library of Congress.

Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-107).

----- for tenor & TTBB with piano reduction. Tuskegee: Music Press, 1939. Library: Library of Congress.

Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos (Tuskegee Choir series, T-106).

There’s a lit’l wheel a-turning in my heart, for SATB. Tuskegee: Tuskegee Music Press, 1949 (R-121).

Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-121).

CD: Brazeal Dennard Chorale; Brazeal Dennard, conductor. BDC 4444 (1999, Remembering, discovering, preserving).

Trio, piano, violin, violoncello, A major (1925).

Were you there? Duration: 3:29.

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster W-9633 (1968).

LP: Tuskegee Institute Choir; William L. Dawson, conductor. Westminster WGM-8154 (1971, 1968).

You got to reap just what you sow, for low voice & piano. Chicago: Gamble Hinged Music Co., 1928. 5p. (#839) Dedication: Paul Robeson. Library: Spingarn.

Zion’s walls, for soprano & SATB. Park Ridge: Neil A. Kjos. (Tuskegee Choir series, T-124).

VC: Morgan State University Choir; Nathan Carter, conductor (Philadelphia; 1993/I). Arts and Entertainment.

13 Bibliography
Prof. Dominique-René de Lerma

“Dawson, William Levi” in Crisis, v40 (1933/II) p40.

“Hail Mary” in Cincinnati Symphony program notes (1954/XII/17) p320.

“Negro composer: Philadelphia Orchestra plays Dawson’s symphony” in Newsweek (1934/XI/24) p22.

“Negro folk symphony is performed amid cheers” in Literary digest (1934/XII/1) p24.

“Negro folk symphony, New York” in Music journal, v22 (1964/X) p64-65. “Negro folk symphony, Orchestra of America” in Musical America, v84 (1964/IX) p44.

“The first Negro symphony” in Literary digest (1933/III/4).

“William L. Dawson” in Black American choral song: The evolution of the spiritual. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1984, p29-30.

Abdul-Rahim, Raoul. “Spotlight on Black composers” in Blacks in classical music. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1977, p57-59.

Allison, Roland Lewis. Classification of the vocal works of Harry T. Burleigh (1866-1949) and some suggestions for their use in teaching diction in singing. Graduate paper (Ph.D.) Indiana University, 1965. 2 vols.: xi, 268p.; p271-380 & phonotape. UM 66-14791.

American composers today. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1940, p78-79.

American music, v3n1, p111

Bakers 1992 (1898-)

Berry, Lemuel, Jr. Biographical dictionary of Black musicians and music educators, vol. 1. Guthrie OK: Educational Book Publishers, 1978. (1898-)

Bio-bibliographical index 1972

Black music research bulletin v12n2, p12, 14

Black music research journal, 1980, p84; 1981-1982, p72, 74, 83, 140; v10n1, p116, 143

Black perspective in music, v1, p101, 102; v2, p149; v3n1, p20, 123, 124 147; v3n2, p162; v3n3, p347; v4n1, p103; v5n1, p37; v5n2, p181; v7n2, p204; v8n1, p81; v10n1, p95; v10n2, p207, 236; v11n1, p82; v11n2, p220; v12n1, p147; v12n2, p264; v14n1, p68, 72; v15n1, p16; v15n2, p184, 260; v17, p21, 203; v18, p184, 218, 249, 258

Blackwell 1978

Bogle 1992, p73.

Braithwaite, Coleridge Alexander. A survey of the lives and creative activities of some Negro composers; A report of a Type C project. Graduate paper (Ed.D.) Columbia University, Teachers College, 1952. 185p.

Brown, Rae Linda. “William Grant Still, Florence Price, and William Dawson; Echoes of the Harlem Renaissance” in Black music in the Harlem Renaissance, ed.by Samuel A. Floyd, Jr. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1990, p71-86.

Bull 1964 (1898-)

Bull, Storm. Index to biographies of contemporary composers, vol. 3. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1987. xxiv, 854p. ISBN 0-8108-1930-9. (1898-)

Butcher, Harold. “The Dawson folk symphony” in Crisis, v42n2 (1935/II) p47, 52.

Center for Black Music Research. Digest, v2n2, p11

Cureau 1987, p191

Dawson, William Levi. “Interpretation of the religious folksongs of the American Negro” in William L. Dawson day, ed. by James G. Spady. Philadelphia: Creative Artists’ Workshop, 1981.

Dawson, William Levi. “Interpretation of the religious folksongs of the American Negro” in Etude (1955/III) p11.

DuBois, Shirley Graham McManus. “The survival of Africanism in modern music” in William L. Dawson: A Umum tribute, ed. by James G. Spady. Philadelphia: Creative Artists Workshop, 1981, 3p.

Evans, Arthur Lee. The development of the Negro spiritual as choral art music by Afro-American composers, with an annotated guide to the performance of selected spirituals. Graduate paper (Ph.D., music) University of Miami, 1972. 264p. LC 73-5837; RILM 76/13629.

Fleisher 1979 (1898-)

Floyd 1990, p175, 187, 194

Floyd, Samuel A., Jr. Black music biography; an annotated bibliography, by Samuel A. Floyd, Jr., and Marsha Reisser. White Plains: Kraus International Publications, 1986, p143

Fuller, C. “Black composer Dawson’s works honored” in Biography news (1974/III) p263.

Hackney, Carrie. “Dawson, William Levi” in Black perspective in music, v18n1-2 (1990) p218.

Handy, D. Antoinette. Black music; opinions and reviews. Ettrick VA: BM&M, 1974., pviii, 56

Hare, Maude Cuney. Negro musicians and their music, introduction by Josephine Harreld Love. New York: G. K. Hall, 1996, 1936. xl, xii, 439p. (African-American women writers, 1910-1940, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., general editor). LC 96-17696.

Harris, Carl Gordon, Jr. “Three schools of Black choral composers and arrangers, 1900-1970” in School music news, v34n4 (1974/XII) p33-39.

Harris, Carl Gordon, Jr. “Three schools of Black choral composers and arrangers, 1900-1970” in Choral journal, v14n8 (1974/IV) p11-15, 17-18.

Harris, Carl Gordon, Jr. A study of characteristic stylistic trends found in the choral works of a selected group of Afro-American composers and arrangers. Graduate paper ( D.M.A., performance) University of Missouri-Kansas City, 1972. viii, 178 p. facs., mus. exs., append. DDM Code: 71voHarC; DA no.: 33/07:3696; RILM no.: UM no.: 72-29,463.

Horne, Aaron. String music by Black American composers. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1991 (Music reference collection, no. 33). xx, 327p. Foreword by Dominique-René de Lerma. ISBN 0-313-27938-1. +

Howard, John Tasker. Our contemporary composers. New York: Corwell, 1941.==

Johnson, John Andrew. “William Dawson, the New Negro, and his folk idiom” in Black music research journal, v19n1 (1999) p43-60.

Kansas City star (1966/I/30). [Negro folk symphony].

LaBrew, Arthur Randolph. “Biographical notices to the Harmon Foundation Awards (1926-1939)” in Afro-American music review, v2 (1982/I-VI), p209-210. +

Lerma, Dominique-René de. “A selected Dawson bibliography” in William L. Dawson: A Umum tribute, ed. by James G. Spady. Philadelphia: Creative Artists Workshop, 1981, 4p.

Lerma, Dominique-René de. “William L. Dawson: A selected discography” in William L. Dawson: A Umum tribute, ed. by James G. Spady. Philadelphia: Creative Artists Workshop, 1981, 2p.

Lerma, Dominique-René de. Black music in our culture; curricular ideas on the subjects, materials, and problems. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1970., p173 (1897-), 183, 196

Malone, Mark Hugh. "William Dawson and the Tuskegee Choir” in Choral journal, v30n8 (1990/III) p17-24.

Malone, Mark Hugh. William Levi Dawson, American music educator. Graduate paper (Ph.D.) , Florida State University, 1981.

Mapp, Edward. Directory of Blacks in the performing arts. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1978. (1898-), 1990 (1898-)

Matney, William C. Who’s who among Black Americans. 3rd ed. Northbrook: Who’s Who Among Black Americans, 1981.

McCray, Norma. “Teaching materials on Afro-American composers” in Development of materials foor a one-year course in African music, ed. by Vada Easter Butcher. Washington: Department of Health, and Education, and Welfare, 1970, p123-198.

Mitchell, Abbie. “William L. Dawson: A colleague’s appreciation” in William L. Dawson: A Umum tribute, ed. by James G. Spady. Philadelphia: Creative Artists Workshop, 1981, 2p.

Nashville Tennessean (1966/V/2) [Negro folk symphony].

Notes v47n4, p1086.

Oja, Carol J. American music recordings; Discography of 20th century U.S. composers. Brooklyn: Institute for Studies in American Music, Conservatory of Music, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, 1982. 368p. (1898-)

Perry, Mark. “First impression notes on hearing Dawson’s Negro folk symphony, no.1: Constructs and polarities as musicological nexus” in William L. Dawson: A Umum tribute, ed. by James G. Spady. Philadelphia: Creative Artists Workshop, 1981, 2p.

Perry, Mark. “Negro folk symphony: Race and politics, art and truth” in William L. Dawson: A Umum tribute, ed. by James G. Spady. Philadelphia: Creative Artists Workshop, 1981, 3p.

Prince, Curtis L. “William Levi Dawson, 1899-1990; Brief biography, analysis and musical examples, Negro folk symphony, first movement, The bond of Africa.” Typescript.

Reagon, Bernice Johnson. “Way out of no way” in William L. Dawson: A Umum tribute, ed. by James G. Spady. Philadelphia: Creative Artists Workshop, 1981, 1p.

Reis, Claire. Composers in America; Biographical sketches of contemporary composers with a record of their works. New York: Macmillan, 1947, p93.

Robinson, Paul. Stokowski. [n.p.]: The Vanguard Press, 1977 (The art of the conductor).

Robinson, Wilhelmena S. Historical Afro-American biographies. Washington: Associated Publishers, 1976, p180-181.

Rogers 1947, p562

Slonimsky, Nicolas. “Dawson, William Levi” in Baker’s biographical dictionary of musicians. 6th ed. New York: Schirmer Books, 1978, p388.[6]

Sonneck Society bulletin v16n2, p83

Southern, Eileen. “Dawson, William Levi” in Biographical dictionary of Afro-American and African musicians. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1982, p98-99. (The Greenwood encyclopedia of Black music).

Southern, Eileen. “Dawson, William” in The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians, ed. by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan, 1980, v5, p286.

Southern, Eileen. “William Levi Dawson” in William L. Dawson: A Umum tribute, ed. by James G. Spady. Philadelphia: Creative Artists Workshop, 1981, 1p.

Southern, Eileen. “Dawson, William Levi” in The new Grove dictionary of American music, ed. by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan, 1986, v1, p590.

Spady, James G. “Eye adawura ma efree owura William L. Dawson maa ọkọọ Kumasi/Africa: It’s the gong gong that called Mr. Dawson to Kumasi/Africa” in William L. Dawson: A Umum tribute, ed. by James G. Spady. Philadelphia: Creative Artists Workshop, 1981, 14p.

Spady, James G. William L. Dawson: A Umum tribute and a marvelous journey. Philadelphia: Creative Artists Workshop, 1981. [unpaged]

Strong, Willie. “Dawson, William Levi” in International dictionary of Black composers, ed. by Samuel A. Floyd, Jr. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999, v1, p 354-359.

Symphonium v5n1

Thomas 1989, p1, 7, 13.

Tischler, Alice. “William Levi Dawson” in Fifteen Black American composers: A bibliography of their works. Detroit: Information Coordinators, 1981, p107-123.

Trice, Patricia Johnson. Choral arrangements of African-American spirituals; historical overview and annotated listings. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1998.

Turner, Patricia. Dictionary of Afro-American performers: 78rpm and cylinder recordings of opera, choral music, and song, c1900-1949. New York: Garland Publishing, 1990., p49, 132, 263, 373.

White, Evelyn Davidson. Choral music by Afro-American composers; A selected, annotated bibliography. 2nd ed. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1996. viii, 126p. ISBN 0-8108-3037-X. First edition issued by Scarecrow in 1981: (1898-)

Who's who colored 1927 (1898-), 1928 (1898-), 1929 (1898-), 1932 (1898-), 1944 (1898-), 1950 (1898-); 1928 (1898-); 1929 (1898-).

Wilkins, Roy. “Talking it over” in Kansas City call (1934/12/13).

Wilkins, Roy. “Talking it over” in William L. Dawson: A Umum tribute, ed. by James G. Spady. Philadelphia: Creative Artists Workshop, 1981, 2p.


 

This page was last updated on May 22, 2013