Companion to AfriClassical.com
Black History Quiz
(52 questions; 3 levels of difficulty)
William J. Zick, Webmaster,
Copyright 2006 - 2021
William J. Zick
All rights reserved for all content of AfriClassical.com
Anna Julia Cooper
Black Heritage USA 2009
U.S. Postal Service Postage Stamp
Violin Concertos by Black Composers
of the 18th & 19th Centuries
Chevalier de Saint-Georges
Rachel Barton, violin
Encore Chamber Orchestra
Daniel Hege, Conductor
Cedille 90000 035 (1997)
Homepage -> Black History
2021 National Black History Theme
The Black Family: Representation, Identity, and Diversity
Association for the Study
of African American Life and History,
February is Black History Month in Jamaica and the United States,
and African Heritage Month in Canada. October is Black History
Month in the United Kingdom. The annual observance was founded in 1926 by
the American historian Dr. Carter Godwin Woodson (1875-1950). He
also founded the Association for the Study of African American Life
and History (ASALH), http://www.asalh.org/
Black History is part of the common record of humanity. It proves
that people of African heritage have made enduring contributions to
society throughout history. Classical music has been enriched by
such contributions as long as it has existed. This page
includes a link to a Black History Quiz
comprised of 52 questions about composers and musicians of African
descent. The Composers page leads to 41 individual
biographies of composers. The Musicians page leads to 11
profiles on conductors and instrumentalists. Over 100 sound
samples can be heard on the Audio page and at the pages of
The primary emphasis of the Web site is on composers of instrumental music, but composers of opera, choral music and songs are also
represented. The site does not sell CDs, but catalog numbers are
included with CD titles, to help in finding recordings at
music stores or at Web sites such as
For purposes of this site, African Americans are considered to be people of African
descent who are born anywhere in the Americas. People born in
Europe of African descent are called Afro-Europeans.
is a companion to AfriClassical.com Visit often to learn
of current issues involving Black composers and musicians. For
a free subscription, leave your E-mail address in the Subscription
box in the right column of the blog's home page.
Listen to audio of an
(mp3) from December 28, 2005: "WDET'S Craig Fahle
recently spoke with Bill Zick, Webmaster for www.africlassical.com.
His website has become one of the premiere resources for those
interested in Black composers of Classical
Africana Encyclopedia, Third Edition, has been an
indispensable resource for the Web site and
is probably quoted more often than any other reference work.
The Center for Black Music Research
research unit of Columbia College Chicago which publishes the
International Dictionary of Black Composers. CBMR is devoted
to research, preservation, and dissemination of information about
the history of Black music on a global scale. Its Web address
In 1987 the African American conductor Paul Freeman became Founding
Musical Director of the Chicago Sinfonietta, an unusually inclusive
orchestra whose mission is "Musical
Excellence Through Diversity". Its Web site is:
http://ChicagoSinfonietta.org Dr. Freeman served with
distinction for 24 years. He handed the baton to his
successor, Mei-Ann Chen in May, 2011. Maestro Freeman is profiled
among the Musicians of African Descent, as is violinist Aaron P. Dworkin.
the Sphinx Organization to introduce Black and Latino string
players to classical music and the classical music profession.
Its principal Web site is www.SphinxMusic.org
The group also operates an interactive educational site for children
The Sphinx Virtuosi (formerly the Sphinx Chamber Orchestra), the Harlem Quartet and the Catalyst
Quartet make a performance tour of the United States each October.
The String Students Library of Music by Black
Composers is a project of the Rachel Elizabeth
Barton Foundation, whose Web site is
Henry: A Ballad for Piano Quintet, was composed by George Augustus Polgreen Bridgetower and
arranged for piano quintet by Prof. Dominique-René de Lerma. It
has been returned from the former MMB Music of St. Louis, and will
now be issued by Casa
Musicale de Lerma.
The following information is an example of
the relevance of AfriClassical.com to curriculum standards.
The assessment was made by the Michigan Teacher Network, relative to
curriculum standards in Michigan, and can be found at:
Relevant Michigan Curriculum
('bullet' symbols differ from original)
* Middle School
* Standard ART.4 (Music)
Arts in Context
* Standard SOC.I.2
Historical Perspective: Comprehending
* High School
* Standard ART.4 (Music)
Arts in Context
* Standard SOC.I.1
Historical Perspective: Time and Chronology
* Standard SOC.I.2
Historical Perspective: Comprehending the
* Standard SOC.I.4
Historical Perspective: Judging Decisions
from the Past
Banat, Gabriel. The Chevalier de
Saint-Georges: Virtuoso of the Sword and the Bow. Hillsdale,
New York: Pendragon Press, 2006.
Departmental Archives of Guadeloupe. Le
Fleuret et l'Archet : Le Chevalier de Saint-George, Crèole dans le
Siècle des Lumières [Foil & Bow: Chevalier de Saint-Georges, Creole
in the Century of the Enlightenment]. Bisdary - Gourbeyre,
Everyman's Dictionary of Music; Compiled by Eric Blom;
Revised by Jack Westrup, Professor of Music, Oxford University.
New York: New American Library, 1971.
Guédé, Alain. Monsieur de Saint-George: Virtuoso, Swordsman,
Revolutionary. New York: Picador, 2003.
Heddle-Roboth, Robert and Marciano, Daniel. De L'Epée à La
Scène: A Book on Theatrical Fencing. Preface: Marcel
Marceau. France: Thespis, 2005.
Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music;
Edited by Don Michael Randel. Cambridge, Massachusetts &
London, England: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996.
King, Reyahn et al. Ignatius Sancho: An African Man of Letters.
London: National Portrait Gallery, 1997.
Marciano, Daniel. Le chevalier de Saint-Georges, Le Fils de
Noémie. France: Thespis, 2005.
Microsoft Encarta Africana Encyclopedia, on
CD-ROM and in a book published by Basic Civitas Books. Kwame
Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Editors.
Nemeth, Luc. Un État-Civil Chargé D'Enjeux: Saint-George,
Annales historiques de la Révolution française, No. 339,
January, 2005, pp. 79-97.
Ribbe, Claude. Le chevalier de Saint-George.
France: Perrin, 2004.
Smidak, Emil F. Joseph Boulogne called Chevalier de
Saint-Georges. Lucerne: Avenira, 1996.
This page was last updated on
January 23, 2021