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Soprano Dawn Padmore sings Noliwe's aria from Chaka at University of Pittsburgh retirement party of Dr. Akin Euba





Afrika Yetu, Oyebade Dosunmu and Sr. Marie Agatha Ozah at Dr. Akin Euba's retirement party at University of Pittsburgh







Chaka: An opera in two chants
City of Birmingham Touring Opera
Simon Halsey, Conductor
Music Research Institute MRI-0001CD (1998)



























Akin Euba: An Introduction to the Life and Music of a Nigerian Composer
Joshua Uzoigwe
Bayreuth African Studies Series (1992)




Home -> Composers -> Euba, Akin


Akin Euba (1935 - 2020)

Nigerian Composer, Professor & Author

Theories Include African Pianism; Retired from University of Pittsburgh in 2011



        Table of Contents

   1 Birth
   2 Traditional Music
   3 Piano Lessons
   4 Trinity College of Music
   5 Early Works
   6 UCLA
   7 Developing an Idiom
   8 Composing for Piano
   9 Bachelor's Degree
 10 Master's Degree
 11 Research
 12 Articles
 13 Books
 14 African Pianism
 15 Creative Ethnomusicology
 16 Chaka CD
 17 Narrative
 18 References for Opera
 19 Nigerian Art Music
 20 Positions
 21 University of Cambridge
 22 Ensemble Noir
 23 University of Pittsburgh
 24 Africa and the Diaspora
 25 A Bridge Across
 26 Acknowledgment
 27 Works
 28 Bibliography
 29 Electronic References



Dr. Akin Euba was Andrew W. Mellon Professor of Music at the
University of Pittsburgh until his retirement in 2011



Dr. Akin Euba at 
retirement party

Audio Sample: Music Research Institute MRI-0001CD (1998); Chaka: An opera in two chants; City of Birmingham Touring Opera; Simon Halsey, Conductor  Part VI - "Why do you not dance"

1 Birth
Akin Euba was born in Lagos, Nigeria on April 28, 1935 and spent his early years there. He is a member of the Yoruba ethnic group. His biography is Akin Euba: An Introduction to the Life and Music of a Nigerian Composer  by Joshua Uzoigwe. It is a 1992 publication of the Bayreuth African Studies Series, edited by Prof. Eckhard Breitinger. It explains that his father was an amateur musician:                  

Akin Euba's father, Alphaeus Sobiyi Euba, was in his youth an active musician (although music was not his profession). He was a chorister at the Olowogbowo Methodist Church (now Wesley Cathedral) Lagos and also played the clarinet in the Triumph Orchestra, a Lagos dance band in which Fela Sowande (who later became internationally famous as a composer)was the pianist.

Akin Euba's mother, Winifred Remilekun Euba, ne Dawodu, was a teacher by profession.

2 Traditional Music
The author refers to a 1974 dissertation for examples of the types of traditional music which were common in the composer's childhood:

In his dissertation on Dundun Drumming of the Yoruba (Euba 1974) he gives an account of some of the traditional music types and events that were popular in those early periods of childhood. These include types such as waka and apala. Akin Euba describes waka as a socio-religious song, of Islamic origin, which later became entertainment music, accompanied on dundun drums. This music (in which female singers are supported by male instrumentalists) is
usually employed in marriage, child-naming, and funeral ceremonies. Apala, which is performed only by men, also has some links with Islam. Like waka it is very much influenced by dundun drumming.

3 Piano Lessons
Akin Euba received his first piano lessons from his father, beginning in 1943. His father clearly expected him to make music his profession.  Euba's second piano teacher was Major J.G.C. Allen, a British civil servant with whom he began instruction in 1948. Euba won first prize at the First Nigerian Festival of the Arts in 1950.  Josua Uzoigwe continues: 

After 1950 Major Allen sent Akin Euba to a Monsieur Tessier Rmi du Cros, the then French Consul in Lagos, who taught him for a while, following which he returned to Major Allen before travelling to the United Kingdom in September 1952. He had left the C.M.S. Grammar School nine months earlier.

4 Trinity College of Music
After two years of study at Trinity College of Music, Euba changed his program to allow himself to concentrate on courses he considered of more value to his future career. His biographer recounts:

These subjects included piano, composition, harmony and counterpoint, orchestration, organ and score-reading.

One teacher who influenced him a great deal at the College was Eric Taylor, with whom he studied harmony and counterpoint for some time. Taylor saw much potential in Akin Euba's arrangements of Nigerian folk songs and encouraged him to do them.  The first of such arrangements were, therefore, done when Akin Euba was a student.

Another person who gave him much encouragement at the College was his composition teacher Dr Arnold Cooke, a pupil of Paul Hindemith. The report which Cooke gave Euba at the end of the first term as his teacher bore the grade 'excellent' with the comments that Akin Euba was a gifted student. This, in Euba's opinion, reinforced in no small way his desire to become a composer.

In four years at Trinity College of Music, Akin Euba earned three degrees:

They are Associate of the Trinity College London (Piano Performance) 1954; Licentiate of the Trinity College London (Teacher's Training Diploma) 1955; and Licentiate of the Trinity College London (Piano Performance) 1956.

5 Early Works
Uzoigwe tells us Akin Euba regarded his first major composition to be a 1956 work, Introduction and Allegro for Orchestra.  He earned Fellowship diplomas at the College in 1957 in Composition and Piano Performance. Euba submitted a string quartet for the Composition Fellowship.  He went back to Nigeria in 1957 and served as a Senior Programme Assistant (Music) at the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation until his promotion to Head of Music in 1960.  The author continues:                

Two works which were written as a result of his experiences at this time are Six Yoruba Songs for voice and piano, and Two Yoruba Folk Songs for unaccompanied choir. They were both completed in 1959.

In the same year that he was promoted as Head of Music (1960), Akin Euba wrote another work entitled The Wanderer for violoncello and piano.

The biography quotes Akin Euba's comments on The Wanderer:                   

"Hitherto," he confirms, "It was in arrangements of folk songs that I made use of African material.  My original compositions were composed in European terms.  The Wanderer was the first composition in which I attempted to explore elements of African music."

His position in broadcasting contributed to performances and recordings of some of Euba's early compositions.

In 1962 Akin Euba received a fellowship in ethnomusicology which had a major impact on his development as a composer, as we learn from the biography:                         

While still in the employ of the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation, he received a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship in 1962 to study ethnomusicology at the University of California, Los Angeles. His arrival at UCLA towards the end of that year marked, according to Akin Euba, a turning point in his career.  He was to be introduced to different musical cultures from many parts of the world, and, as time went on, he was to acquire a deep theoretical knowledge of African music.
After an incubation period of one year or so, during which he absorbed the 'theoretical means' mentioned above, Akin Euba began to seek to develop what he considered an African idiom.

7 Developing an Idiom
Joshua Uzoigwe tells us of the works Akin Euba composed while trying to develop an African idiom:                     

The earliest works in this new attempt include Igi Nla So for piano and four Yoruba drums, and Three Yoruba Songs for baritone, piano and Iyaalu (Yoruba 'talking drum' of the dundun tension drum family). Other works written in 1963 include Five Pieces for English horn and piano, and Dance to the Rising Sun. The latter is an orchestral piece which was commissioned by Robert Boudreau, who conducted the American Wind Symphony Orchestra at the work's premiere that same year.

According to Akin Euba, in spite of these early efforts at composing in an African idiom, he could "not find the key to this idiom".  But he felt all along that the key was being gradually revealed by his continued study of the theoretical basis of African traditional music and exposure to the traditional music of other peoples, and, especially, by his interaction with other composers at UCLA who were also involved with the study of non-Western music.

8 Composing for Piano
The author points out that the composer focused on works for piano in 1964:                       

His last academic year as an undergraduate at UCLA was that of increased influx in creative activities, particularly in writing for the piano.  Akin Euba explains the reasons for this as follows:

"I believe that my producing many works for the piano in 1964 resulted from (1) my need to have things which I could play by myself and (2) my wish to explore the 'African'/percussive aspects of the piano.  I was at that time just beginning to develop the idea of 'African pianism', a style of piano playing which is as distinct as a jazz pianism or a Chopinesque pianism."
The piano works that he wrote in 1964 include Four Pictures from Oyo Calabashes, Impressions from an Akwete Cloth, and Saturday Night at Caban Bamboo.  The other works of this same year in which piano is combined with other instruments are Tortoise and the Speaking Cloth for narrator and piano, and Four Pieces for flute, bassoon, piano and percussion.

9 Bachelor's Degree
Euba graduated Cum Laude with a B.A. degree in Music, and returned to Nigeria, at the end of the 1963-64 school year, Uzoigwe writes, but registered at UCLA again in late 1965, this time in the Masters degree program in Composition.  During the interim, Euba had written Abiku I, to be performed on Nigerian instruments. The author continues:                  

According to Akin Euba, it was written for a dance-drama (choreographed by Segun Olusola), involving a solo dancer, which was video-taped by the Nigerian Television Authority (formerly NBC-TV) and presented at the Salzburg Congress of the International Music Centre on "Dance, Ballet and Pantomime in Film and TV" in 1965.

The music and dramatization of Abiku I were based, he says, on J.P. Clark's poem on the theme of abiku (a child "born to die"), although the text itself was not used.  J.P.Clark is a Nigerian poet and playwright and a contemporary of Akin Euba.

10 Master's Degree
Akin Euba left his position with the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation when he returned to UCLA to earn a Master's degree.  Uzoigwe adds:             

He now set out to compose another series of pieces for an African orchestra as part of his thesis for a Master's degree in 1966.

The new collection was called Four Pieces. The book continues:                   

On completion of his Master's degree at UCLA in 1966, Akin Euba joined the University of Lagos as a lecturer in music, and within that same year he attended two music conferences in Bloomington, Indiana, and Legon, Ghana.

11 Research
His biographer tells us Akin Euba's teaching duties were light enough that he was able to do research in Ethnomusicology:                          

While at the University of Lagos, Euba was attached to the School of African and Asian Studies, where his teaching duties were minimal. He was therefore able to concentrate on research and creative work.
In fact, in 1967, he registered with the University of Ghana as a Ph.D. student in

From 1967 onwards, Akin Euba began to acquire, through his research, a deeper knowledge of the music of his culture, which he in turn employed as an aid to his creative experiments. A piece of work which marks the beginning of this phase is Olurounbi, a tone poem for symphony orchestra.  In 1966 he had written what appears to be a prelude to this work. The earlier work was titled Legend, and scored for violin, horn, piano, and percussion.  The symphonic tone poem of 1967 is based on a Yoruba legend (see explanation in Chapter 4), and was performed in that year by the Portland Maine Symphony Orchestra conducted by Arthur Lipkin.

12 Articles
Akin Euba composed two other works in 1967, Uzoigwe tells us: (1) Morning, Noon and Night for Nigerian instruments, performed in 1967 in Edinburgh by Theatre Express of Lagos. (2) Wind Quintet, performed in Nairobi in 1967 by the Bavarian Wind Quintet. Music was not all Euba produced that year; he also published two theoretical articles on music in Africa.  Multiple Pitch Lines in Yoruba Choral Music appeared in the Journal of the International Folk Music Council, XIX. In Search of a Common Language of African Music was published in Interlink, III,iii.  Akin Euba was founder and editor of the journal Nigerian Music Review, and established a series called Ife Music Editions to publish music composed by Africans. Joshua Uzoigwe tells us Euba subsequently wrote a number of music journal articles on his ideas:                 

They include such titles as "Creative Potential and Propagation of African Traditional Music" (Euba 1972), "Traditional Elements as the Basis of New African Art Music" (Euba 1970c), "Music Adapts to a Changed World" (Euba 1970a), "The Potential of African Traditional Music as a Contemplative Art" (Euba 1974), and the "Criteria for the Evaluation of New African Art Music" (Euba 1975a).

13 Books
Prof. Akin Euba's curriculum vitae says he is the author of four books and the co-editor of another three volumes:              

Euba is the author of four books, including Yoruba Drumming: The Dundun Tradition, and co-editor of three books in the series titled Intercultural Music.

14 African Pianism
His curriculum vitae also includes autobiographical notes which begin as follows:                      

Akin Euba, who comes from Nigeria, divides his time between composition and scholarly work and considers himself to be a disciple of Bela Bartok. Since 1970, he has pioneered several theories of composition, the best known of which is that of African pianism.  This concept has been adopted by some of the most important contemporary African composers, such as J.H. Kwabena Nketia, Joshua Uzoigwe and Gyimah Labi. The concept is articulated in several of Eubas works for the piano, including Scenes from Traditional Life (1970) which has been performed extensively in various parts of the world.

15 Creative Ethnomusicology
Dr. Euba's autobiographical notes continue with a definition of his theory of creative ethnomusicology:

Another of Eubas theories, creative ethnomusicology, was the subject of an inaugural lecture which he delivered in the University of Pittsburgh in March 2000, in his position as the Andrew W. Mellon Professor of Music at the University. As defined by Euba, creative ethnomusicology is a process whereby information obtained from music research is used in composition rather than as the basis of scholarly writing.

16 Chaka CD
Akin Euba's curriculum vitae observes that his creative concepts have no better representation than the opera Chaka. He explains in the liner notes of Chaka, MRI 0001CD (1999):              

This recording is a revised version of the opera that was premiered in a semi-staged format by the City of Birmingham Touring Opera in September 1995, during Africa 95, a three-month long celebration of African arts that took place in various parts of the United Kingdom.
Briefly stated, Chaka is a fusion of 20th century techniques of composition with stylistic elements derived from African traditional music, particularly the music of the Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria. Moreover, the orchestra is a combination of African and Western instruments.

17 Narrative
The liner notes by Akin Euba give this account of the events portrayed in the opera Chaka:                     

The epic poem by Senghor is based on the real life story of Chaka, a 19th century king of the Zulu who achieved fame as a brilliant military strategist and empire builder but was also notorious for crimes against humanity.

The poem is in two parts, subtitled Chant 1 and Chant 2 and in designating Chaka as an opera in two chants (rather than two acts) I follow Senghor's example. The vocal parts of the opera are in any case written in a style that is akin to that of the chant mode of Yoruba music (in its free rhythm, but not speech-song, aspects).

In the prelude to Chant 2, I include "Man and the Beast," also a poem by Senghor (but not part of the Chaka poem).

Senghor's poem covers the last moments of Chaka's life. In Chant 1, the hitherto invincible Chaka has been assassinated by some of his own people and lies dying from his wounds. He is cross-examined by a White Voice (who is a dual symbol of the missionary and colonial presence in Africa).

The White Voice denounces Chaka as a blood-thirsty tyrant who murdered Noliwe, his wife-to-be, in order to gain absolute power, and also caused the slaughter of millions, including pregnant women and children.  Chaka's defence is that every act of his was performed for the love of his black-skinned people.

Chant 2 is a love song in which Chaka remembers tender moments with his beloved Noliwe, while a chorus chants in praise of Chaka.

Further information on Chaka is available in the author's notes at the Website AfricanChorus.org: http://www.africanchorus.org/Voam/Voam643.htm 

18 References
The liner notes of the Chaka recording list these references for the opera:                   

Euba, Akin. Essays on Music in Africa 2: Intercultural Perspectives. Bayreuth: Bayreuth African Studies Series. (1989)

Uzoigwe, Joshua Akin Euba: An Introduction to the Life and Music of a Nigerian Composer.  Bayreuth: Bayreuth African Studies Series. (1992)

Lopold Sdar Senghor, first president of
Senegal and doyen of modern African writers, originally published "Chaka" and "Man and the Beast" in French. The English translations used in the opera are not included in these notes and may be found in the OUP publication cited above. The Yoruba texts of the opera were written or derived from various traditional sources by Akin Euba. They are included here with parallel translations in English.

19 Nigerian Art Music
Nigerian Art Music is an overview of classical music by Nigerian composers. The author is Olabode Omojola, Ph.D.  Artists featured include Samuel Ekpe Akpabot, Fela Sowande and Akin Euba. All three are profiled at this Website. Dr. Omojola begins his analysis of Akin Euba with these words:                  

Like Sowande, Akin Euba's ideas on the need for African composers to maintain a strong link with traditional African traditional music have been reflected both in his compositions and research work. Clear parallels often, therefore, occur between his writing and his composition. The writing shows Euba's strong commitment, far beyond that of any of his colleagues, to a search for a contemporary African society.

20 Positions
Dr. Euba has been a lecturer, visiting fellow, and external examiner at a variety of universities in Africa and North America.  His first position as Lecturer at the University of Lagos in Nigeria extended from 1966-68.  From 1968-75, he was a Senior Research Fellow at the University of Ife in Nigeria.  He spent the Summer of 1969 at Howard University in Washington, D.C.  Assignments as External Examiner involved both the University of Ife and Makerere University in Uganda.  Dr. Euba was a Professor at the University of Lagos from 1978-81. He spent five years as a Research Scholar at the University of Bayreuth in Germany, from 1986-91.  Among other appointments, he was Director of the Center for Intercultural Music Arts in London, which he founded, in 1988.  Subsequent positions listed on his curriculum vitae include:                       

1992-94 External Examiner, University of Ghana, Legon.

1992-94 Secretary-General of the Commonwealth Music Association

1993 (October) - 1996 (September)Honorary Visiting Professor, Department of Music, City University, London.

1993 (January) - 1996 (April) Visiting Andrew Mellon Professor of Music, University of Pittsburgh

1994 Appointed by the Center for Black Music Research, Chicago, as a member of the Advisory Board for a Dictionary of Black Composers being published by the St. James's Press.

1996 (September) Appointed Andrew Mellon Professor of Music, University of Pittsburgh

1996-97 External Examiner, University of Ghana, Legon.

21 University of Cambridge
His curriculum vitae recounts his work on a new composition while he was an overseas fellow of the University of Cambridge in the 2000-2001 academic year. It also gives the time and circumstances of the work's subsequent premiere in New Orleans:                 

Euba spent the 2000-2001 academic year as an overseas fellow of Churchill College, University of Cambridge. While at Cambridge he worked on a major new composition, Orunmilas Voices: Songs from the Beginning of Time, a music drama for soloists, chanters, chorus, dancers and symphony orchestra, which received its world premiere in New Orleans on 23 February 2002, during the second annual international festival of African and African American music (FESAAM 2002).

22 Ensemble Noir
Ensemble Noir is a professional organization in Toronto which is devoted to "cultural diversity in contemporary classical music", as indicated at its website.  In his curriculum vitae, Dr. Euba recounts his 10 days as a composer-in-residence with the group:

During the spring semester of 2003, Dr Euba spent ten days in Toronto as a composer-in-residence with the Ensemble Noir, during which several of his works were performed, including three movements from Orunmilas Voices, in new arrangements for various chamber ensembles.

23 University of Pittsburgh
Akin Euba was the Andrew W. Mellon Professor of Music at the University of Pittsburgh until he retired in the Spring of 2011.  His fields were African Music, Composition and Piano Performance, according to his faculty Web page: http://www.music.pitt.edu/faculty/euba

The page adds that Dr. Euba's biography has been published in the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2d ed., 2001; and in the International Dictionary of Black Composers, 1999.

24 Africa and the Diaspora
Prof. Euba's curriculum vitae recounts his change of concentration in the past several years from global interculturalism to connections between Africa and the Diaspora:

In recent years Euba has moved away from general issues on world interculturalism (with which he has been involved since 1988) to focus on links between Africa and the Diaspora. This new orientation is reflected in most of his recent and current projects, for example the international symposia and festivals on African pianism (Pittsburgh 1999) and on composition in Africa and the Diaspora (Cambridge 2001) which were organized by him.

25 A Bridge Across
AfricanChorus.org has published Profile: Akin Euba at its Website:
http://www.africanchorus.org/Voam/Voam644.htm  It touches on a
project Euba started in 1993:

Since joining the University of Pittsburgh in 1993, Euba has initiated a new project, entitled A Bridge Across: Intercultural Composition, Performance, Musicology, which is an extension of Eubas London activities and is designed to spotlight the works of composers, performers and musicologists through recitals, workshops, lectures, residencies and so forth.

Dialogue in Music Project: Africa Meets North America  was a festival and symposium at UCLA, Oct. 22-25, 2009.  Classical artists who participated included pianist Girma Yifrashewa of Ethiopia, Liberian-born soprano Dawn Padmore, Jamaica-born pianist Maxine Franklin, British-born pianist Richard Thompson, and flute player Laura Falzon, born in Canada to Maltese parents.

26 Acknowledgment
The Webmaster gratefully acknowledges permission to use the Works List, Bibliography and Electronic Resources compiled by Dr. Dominique-Ren de Lerma, Professor of Music at Lawrence University in Appleton, Wisconsin. Prof. De Lerma has been publishing on Black Classical Music for four decades, and is a former Director of the Center for Black Music Research at Columbia College, Chicago, http://www.colum.edu/cbmr

27 Works
Towards an African pianism; collected works for the keyboard, 1964-1997. Projected.
Individual titles:
A Yoruba folksong, for flute, harp, viola & percussion.
bk, no. 1, for African instrumental ensemble (1965)..
bk, no. 2, for textless chorus & African instrumental ensemble (1968).
Alatangana, ballet. for singers, dancers & Nigerian instruments (1975).
Amici, for string quartet.
Below Rusumo Falls, for voice, dancer, kayagum, flute, drums & piano. Text: Olusola Oyeleye. Commssion (poetry): Barbican Education. Premire: 2003/VIII/3, University of Cambridge, Churchill College, Wolfson Hall Auditorium; Dawn Padmore, soprano; Hee-sun Kim, kayagum; Laura Falzon, flute; Darryl Hollister, piano; Radiu Ayandokun, drums; Omotolani Sarumi, dancer; Bongani Ndodana, conductor.
CD: Dawn Padmore, soprano; Laura Falzon, flute; Hee-sum Kim, kyagum; Anicet Mundundu, drums; Darryl Hollister, piano (2003/VIII/03; Churchill College, University of Cambridge).
Black Bethlehem, for soloists, chorus, Nigerian drums & jazz ensemble (1979).
Chaka, opera in two chants, for 2 sopranos, tenor, 2 basses, chorus and orchestra with African instruments (1970, rev. 1999). Text: Lopold Sdar Senghor, after the novel, Shaka the Zulu, by Thomas Mofolo (1925)?== Premire: 1995/IX; Birmingham UK; Symphony Hall. Dedication: Morenike, the composers daughter. Duration: 61:16.
CD: Daniel Washington (Chaka); Richard Halton (White voice); Mauren Brathwaite (Noliwe); Jlad Pratt (Praise chanter); Sarah Jane Wright (Leader of the chorus); Olọl Oylyę (Isanussi); City of Birmingham Touring Opera; Simon Halsey, conductor. Music Research Institute MRI-0001 CD (1999). Liner notes unsigned.
----- Noliwe's aria
CD: Dawn Padmore, soprano; Darryl Hollister, piano (Churchill College, University of Cambridge, 2003/VIII/4).
----- Themes from Chaka, no. 1  (1996 == or 1966?). Duration: 5:50.
CD: Eric Moe, piano (2001/VIII/06).
CD: Darryl Hollister, piano (2001/III). Interntional Consortium for the Music of Africa and its Diaspora. FESAAM 2001.
----- Themes from Chaka, no. 2, for piano. Premire: 2003/VII/02; Churchill College, University of Cambridge; Darryl Hollister, piano.
CD: Darryl Hollister, piano (2003/VIII/02; Churchill College; University of Cambridge).
Dirges, for speakers, dancers, soloists & African instruments (1972). Premire: 1972; Munich; Olympics.
Festac 77 anthem, for chorus & jazz ensemble (1977). Premire: 1977; Lagos; Second World Festival of Black and African Arts. Text: Margaret Walker.
Ice cubes, for string orchestra. (1970).
Igi n/a so, for 4 Yoruba drums & piano (1953). ==oriki scores
Impressions from Akwete cloth, for piano (1964).
Introduction and allegro, for orchestra (1956).
Legend of Olurounbi, for orchestra. Premire: by 1967; United States.
Morning, noon, and night, for singers, dancers & Nigerian instruments (1967).
Music for horn, violin, percussion & piano.
Olurombi, [2] for orchestra (1967). Premire: 1967; Portland Symphony Orchestra [ME] Arthur Bennet Lipkin, conductor.
Orumillas voices; songs from the beginning of time (2002).
4 Pictures from oyo calabashes, for piano (1964).
4 Pieces, for flute, bassoon, Nigerian instruments & piano (1964).
4 Pieces for African orchestra (1966).
Quartet, strings (1957).
Quintet, winds (1967).
Saturday night at Caban Bamboo (1964).
Scenes from traditional life, for piano (1970). Ile-Ife: University of Ife Press, 1970. Contains 3 movements. Dedication: J. G. C. Allen.
CD: Glen Inanga, piano (2003/VIII/1, Churchill College, University of Cambridge).
Study in African jazz, no. 2; a song for Darelee (2000)
CD: David Keberle, clarinet; Eric Moe, piano (2001/VIII).
Study in African jazz, no. 3, for piano. Commission: Eric Moe.
CD: Eric Moe, piano.
The wanderer, for violoncello & piano
----- for piano trio (1960).
2 Tortoise folk tales, for narrator & Nigerian instruments (1975).
Wakar duru; 3 Studies in African pianism  (1987). 1. Study 1; 2. Study 2. Premire: 1993/I/29, Nigeria; University of Ilorin, Performing Arts Courtyard; Godwin Sadoh, piano.
----- 1.
CD: Darryl Hollister, piano (2001/VIII/06, Universty of Cambridge). DSL 003.
----- 3.
CD: Darryl Hollister, piano (2001/VIII/06, Universty of Cambridge). DSL 003.
2 Yoruba folk songs, for chorus (1959).
6 Yoruba folksongs, for voice & piano (1975 == or 1959?). 1. Mo l jiyn yo; 2. r mta; 3. Mo j w gb gb; 4. Omo jw; 5. Agbe; se gb na?
CD: Joyce Adewumi, soprano; Darryl Hollister, piano (2001/VIII/06).
6 Yoruba songs, for voice & piano (1959).
3 Yoruba songs, for baritone, lyalu & piano (1963). ==? Oriki scores ==

28 Bibliography
1971 prize winners; Dance, music, drama in African arts, v5n3 (1972/winter) p8-11.

Alatangana in African arts, v5n2 (1972/winter) p46-47.

Dr. ubs tours in Music rap, v2n6 (1985/III) p15-16.

Adgb, Adml. The present state of development of African art music    in Nigeria in African art music in Nigeria, ed, by Mosnmợl A Omby-Obidike. Ibadan: Stirling Horden, 2001, p77-92.

Baldacchino, John. An analytical review of Akin ubs Modern African music and Joshua Uzoigwes Akin ub; An introduction to the life and music of a Nigerian composer in Commonwealth music (1966) p2-5.

Black music research journal, 1981-1982, p147

Black perspective in music, v4n1, p105; v5n1, p105; v6n1, p99.

Bull, Storm. Index to biographies of contemporary composers, vol. 3. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1987. xxiv, 854p. ISBN 0-8108-1930-9.

Carter, Madison H. An annotated catalogue of composers of African ancestry.  New York: Vantage Press, 1986.

Clague, Mark.  ub, Akin in International dictionary of Black composers, ed. by Samuel A. Floyd, Jr. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999, v1, p424-432.

ub, Akin. An introduction to music in Nigeria on Nigerian music review, n1 (1977) p1-38.

ub, Akin. Concepts of neo-African music as manifested in the Yoruba folk opera in The African diaspora; A musical perspective, ed. by Ingrid Mondon. New York: Routledge, 2003, p207-241.

ub, Akin. New idioms of music-drama among theYoruba; An introductory study in 1970 yearbook of the International Folk Music Council, ed. by Alexander L. Ringer. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1971.

ub, Akin. Nigerian music in Nigerian magazine (1960).

ub, Akin. Text setting in African composition in The landscape of African music, ed. by Abiola Irele. Special issue of Research in African literatures, v32n2 (2001), p119-132.

ub, Akin. The interrelationship of music and poetry in Yoruba tradition in Yoruba oral tradition, ed. by Wand Abmbl. Il-If: University of If`, Department of African Languages and Literature, 1975.

ub, Akin. Themes from Chaka; A pianistic realization of African polyrhythm in Towards an African pianism, v1, ed. by Akin ub and Cynthia Tse Kimberlin. Point Richmond: MRI Press, 2002.

ub, Akin. Traditional elements as the basis of new African music in African urban notes, n5/4.

ub, Akin. Yoruba music in the church; The development of a neo-African art among the Yoruba of Nigeria in African musicology; Current trends, vol. 2; A Festschrift presented to J. H. Kwabena Nketia, ed. by Jacqueline C. DjeDje. Atlanta: Crossroads Press, 1992.

Eub, Akin. Bridging ethnomusicology and composition; A study of J. H. Kwabena Nketia. In progress.

ub, Akin. Essays on music in Africa 2; Intercultural perspectives. Bayreuth: Bayreuth African Studies Series, 1989.

ub, Akin. Modern African music; A catalogue of selected archical materials at Iwalewa-Haus, University of Bayreuth.  Bayreuth: Iwalewa-Haus, 1993.

ub, Akin. Yoruba drumming; The dundun tradition. Bayreuth: Bayreuth African Studies Series, 1990.

Graham 1988, pix, 72

Holohan, Meghan. Musical safari in Pitt magazine [University of Pittburgh] (2004/winter) p30-33.

Horne 1996
Horne, Aaron. String music by Black American composers. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1991 (Music reference collection, no. 33). xx, 327p. Foreword by Dominique-Ren de Lerma. ISBN 0-313-27938-1.

Horne, Aaron. Woodwind music by Black American composers. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Lerma, Dominique-Ren de. Black concert and recital music; A provisional list. Bloomington IN: Afro-American Music Opportunities Association, 1975.

Lerma, Dominique-Ren de. Black music in our culture; curricular ideas on the subjects, materials, and problems. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1970. (Akim)

Lerma, Dominique-Ren de. Reflections on Afro-American music. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1972.

Morton, Brian, ed. Contemporary composers, ed. by Brian Morton and Pamela Collins. New York: St. James Press, 1992.

Nwosu-Lohmijk, Joy. Art singsing in Niegria; The composers and the perforners in African art music in Nigeria, ed, by Mosnmợl A Omby-Obidike. Ibadan: Stirling Horden, 2001, p70-76.

Ọmọjọl, Olabode. African pianism as an intercultural compositional framework; A study of the piano works of Akin ub in The landscape of African music, ed. by Abiola Irele. Special issue of Research in African literatures, v32n2 (2001), p153-174.

Ojehomon, Agnes. Catalogue of recorded sound. Ibadan: University of Ibadan, Institute of African Studies, 1969 (Institute of African Studies, Occasional publications, 30). 39p.

Roach, Hildred. Black American music, past and present.  Miami: Krieger, 1985.

Roberts, John Storm. Black music of two worlds; African, Caribbean, Latin, and African-American traditions. New York: Schirmer Books, 1998. xxxvii, 330p. Previously issued by Prager Publishers in 1972.

Southern, Eileen. ub, Akin in Biographical dictionary of Afro-American and African musicians.  Westport: Greenwood Press, 1982, p128. (The Greenwood encyclopedia of Black music).

Southern, Eileen. A biographical dictionary of Afro-American and African musicians. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1982.==

Spradling, Mary Mace. In black and white; Afro-Americans in print. 3rd ed. supplement. Detroit: Gale Research, 1985.  Detroit: Gale Research, 1980.

Stow, Betsy, ed. 2nd International Symposium and Festival on Composition in Africa and the Diapora, including Dialogue Africa meets Asia. Cambridge UK: Churchill College, 2003. 107p.

Thomas 1989, p5.

Uzoigwe, Joshua. A cultural analysis of Akin ubs musical works in Odu; Journal of West African studies, v24 (1983) p44-60.

Uzoigwe, Joshua. Akin ub; An introduction to the life and music of a Nigerian composer. Graduate paper (M.A.) Queens University, Belfast, 1978.

Uzoigwe, Joshua.  Akin ub; An introduction to the life and music of a Nigerian composer. Bayreuth: Bayreuth African Studies Series, 1992.

Waterman 1990

29 Electronic Resources

Nyaho http://www.nyaho.com  2p. Consulted 2003/VI/02.
Profile Akin Euba http://www.africanchorus.org/Voam/Voam644.htm   (2004). 4p. Consulted 2004/IV/2.
Okoli, Tunde. Colours of African music across cultures wysiwyg://74/http://www.thisfayonlhive/20021014art01.html 3p. Consulted 2003/VI/02.


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